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Listo de militoj laŭ nombro de mortintoj

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Tri el la dek plej kostaj militoj, laŭ terminoj de vivoperdoj, okazis en la lasta jarcento. Tiuj estas la du mondmilitoj, sekvite de la Dua japana-ĉina milito (kiu estas foje konsiderata parto de la Dua Mondmilito, aŭ koincidanta kun tiu). Plej el la aliaj implikis ĉu Ĉinion aŭ najbarajn popolojn. La mortindico de la Dua Mondmilito, nome pli ol 60 milionoj, surpasas ĉiujn aliajn militajn mortindicojn. Tio povas rilati al la gravaj ĵusaj antaŭeniroj en armilaj teknologioj, same kiel al gravaj ĵusaj pliigoj en la ĝenerala homa loĝantaro.[1]

Listo de militoj laŭ nombro de mortintoj super 1,000,000 mortojRedakti

Mortoj
(milionoj)
Dato Milito
60.7–84.6 1939–1945 Dua Mondmilito (vidu artikolon Kvanto de viktimoj de la dua mondmilito) [2][3]
60 13a jarcento Mongolaj konkeroj (vidu artikolon Mongolaj invadoj kaj Tataraj invadoj)[4][5][6]
40 1850–1864 Tajpinga ribelo (vidu artikolon Dunganoj)[7]
36- 40 184–280 Trireĝlanda milito (vidu artikolon Dunganoj)[8][9]
39 1914–1918 Unua Mondmilito (vidu artikolon Kvanto de viktimoj de la unua mondmilito)[10]
36 755–763 Anluŝa ribelo (troigita cifero bazita sur censa sistemo, sed ne konsiderante la teritorian malpliigon kaj la neefikan censosistemon postmilitajn)[11]
20 1937–1945 Dua japana-ĉina milito[12]
20 1370–1405 Konkeroj de Tamerlano[13][14]
16 1862–1877 Dungana ribelo
5–9 1917–1922 Rusia enlanda milito kaj eksterlanda interveno[19]
7–7,5 1927–1949 Ĉina enlanda milito[20]
4 1200-800 a.K. Milito de Kurukŝetro[21]
3,5-6 1803–1815 Napoleonaj Militoj
3–11,5 1618–1648 Tridekjara milito[22]
2,5-5,4 1998–2003 Dua Konga Milito-Granda milito de Afriko[23][24][25][26]
2 598–614 Gogurjeo–Sui Milito
2–4 1562–1598 Francaj religiaj militoj[27] – konata ankaŭ kiel Hugenota Milito
2 1816–1828 Konkeroj de Ŝaka[28]
1,2 1950–1953 Korea milito[29]
1–3,8 1955–1975 Vjetnama milito[30][31][32]
1–2 1910–1920 Meksika revolucio[33]
1 1980–1988 Iraka-irana milito[34]
1 1967–1970 Niĝeria Enlanda Milito
1–1,6 1979–1989 Soveta-afgana milito[35][36][37]
1 1756–1763 Sepjara milito[38][39]

Listo de militoj laŭ nombro de mortintoj sub 1,000,000 mortojRedakti

plenigota

NotojRedakti

  1. 1,0 1,1 McFarlane, Alan: The Savage Wars of Peace: England, Japan and the Malthusian Trap, Blackwell 2003, ISBN 0-631-18117-2, ISBN 978-0-631-18117-0 – citita de White
  2. Wallinsky, David: David Wallechinsky's Twentieth Century: History With the Boring Parts Left Out, Little Brown & Co., 1996, ISBN 0-316-92056-8, ISBN 978-0-316-92056-8 – citita de White
  3. Brzezinski, Zbigniew: Out of Control: Global Turmoil on the Eve of the Twenty-first Century, Prentice Hall & IBD, 1994, ASIN B000O8PVJI – citita de White
  4. Ping-ti Ho, "An Estimate of the Total Population of Sung-Chin China", in Études Song, Series 1, No 1, (1970) pp. 33–53.
  5. Mongol Conquests. Users.erols.com. Alirita 2011-01-24.
  6. "The world's worst massacres Whole Earth Review", Findarticles.com. Kontrolita 2011-01-24.
  7. Taiping Rebellion – Britannica Concise. Britannica. Alirita 2011-01-24.
  8. Robert B. Marks (2011). China: Its Environment and History (World Social Change). Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. ISBN 1442212756.
  9. Graziella Caselli (2005). Demography – Analysis and Synthesis: A Treatise in Population. Academic Press. ISBN 012765660X.
  10. Michael Duffy (22 August 2009)Military Casualties of World War One. Firstworldwar.com. Alirita 2011-01-24.
  11. Selected Death Tolls for Wars, Massacres and Atrocities Before the 20th Century. Users.erols.com. Alirita 2011-01-24.
  12. Nuclear Power: The End of the War Against Japan. BBC News. Alirita 2011-01-24.
  13. Timur Lenk (1369–1405). Users.erols.com. Alirita 2011-01-24.
  14. Retejo de Matthew White (kompilaĵo de fakulaj ĉirkaŭkalkuloj de mortindicoj)
  15. STANNARD, David E.. (1993) American Holocaust: The Conquest of the New World. New York & Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-508557-0. “[D]emographers have been uncovering, in region upon region, post-Columbian depopulation rates of between 90 and 98 percent with such regularity that an overall decline of 95 percent has become a working rule of thumb. [...] In the 1940s and 1950s conventional wisdom held that the population of the entire hemisphere in 1492 was little more than 8,000,000—with fewer than 1,000,000 people living in the region north of present-day Mexico. Today, few serious students of the subject would put the hemispheric figure at less than 75,000,000 to 100,000,000 (with approximately 8,000,000 to 12,000,000 north of Mexico), while one of the most well-regarded specialists in the field recently has suggested that a more accurate estimate would be around 145,000,000 for the hemisphere as a whole and about 18,000,000 for the area north of Mexico.”.
  16. (2000) A Population History of North America. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-49666-7.
  17. David E. Stannard. (1993-11-18) American Holocaust: The Conquest of the New World. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-19-508557-0.
  18. HENIGE, David. (1998) Numbers from Nowhere: The American Indian Contact Population Debate. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 978-0-806-13044-6. “[T]hose attempting to calculate the depopulation of the New World in generalized terms by pressing its beginning closer and closer to 1492 are confronted with refractory sources that do not provide them with the information they require... The vulnerability to refutation is no light matter ... a formidable lack of curiosity about the content and legitimacy of competing evidence and a concomitant failure to systematically to engage the scholarship of others can only render this the refuge of the credulous.”.
  19. Russian Civil War. Spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk. Alirita 2011-01-24.
  20. [1]
  21. C. Rajagopalachari, Mahābhārata, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. 1994 pp 183.
  22. The Thirty Years War (1618–48)
  23. . Inside Congo, An Unspeakable Toll. Theirc.org (2006-07-16). Alirita 2011-01-24.
  24. James Astill in Bukavu and Isabelle Chevallot. "Conflict in Congo has killed 4.7m, charity says", Guardian, 2003-04-08. Kontrolita 2011-01-24.
  25. Come Back, Colonialism, All is Forgiven
  26. Bethany Lacina and Nils Petter Gleditsch, "Monitoring Trends in Global Combat: A New Dataset of Battle Deaths, European Journal of Population (2005) 21: 145–166.
  27. KNECHT, Robert J.. (2002) The French Religious Wars 1562–1598. Osprey Publishing, p. 91. ISBN 9781841763958.
  28. Shaka: Zulu Chieftain; HistoryNet.com; 12a de Junio, 2006
  29. Bethany Lacina and Nils Petter Gleditsch, Monitoring Trends in Global Combat: A New Dataset of Battle Deaths, European Journal of Population (2005) 21: 145–166.
  30. Charles Hirschman et al., "Vietnamese Casualties During the American War: A New Estimate," Population and Development Review, December 1995.
  31. Shenon, Philip, "20 Years After Victory, Vietnamese Communists Ponder How to Celebrate", 23 April 1995. Kontrolita 24a de Februaro 2011.
  32. "fifty years of violent war deaths: data analysis from the world health survey program: BMJ", 23 April 2008. Kontrolita 5a de Januaro 2013. El 1955 al 2002, informoj indikas 5.4 milionojn da violentaj miltmortoj... 3.8 milionoj en Vjetnamo.
  33. Missing Millions: The human cost of the Mexican Revolution, 1910–1921
  34. Timeline: Iraq
  35. http://books.google.co.nz/books?id=k86jifnA3oYC&pg=PA5&dq=osprey+russia+afghanistan&hl=en#v=onepage&q&f=false
  36. http://books.google.co.nz/books?id=Hz5NzJtg48kC&pg=PA115&dq=soviet+afghan+war+safronov&hl=en#v=onepage&q=soviet%20afghan%20war%20safronov&f=false
  37. http://www.nonel.pu.ru/erdferkel/khalidi.pdf
  38. Clodfelter, cited by White
  39. Urlanis, citita de White