Traktato de Urga: Malsamoj inter versioj

18 bitokojn forigis ,  antaŭ 12 jaroj
(Nova paĝo: thumb|250px|La traktato La '''traktato de amikeco kaj alianco inter la registaro de Mongolio kaj Tibeto''' aŭ '''traktato de Urga''' estas trakta...)
 
Post la falo de la [[dinastio Qing]] en [[1911]], ambaŭ [[Tibeto]] kaj [[Mongolio]] deklaris sian formalan sendependecon sub [[tibeta budhismo|lamaaj]] ŝtatgvidantoj. Ambaŭ ne sukcesis gajni oficialan agnoskon de la [[respubliko de Ĉinio]]. En la traktato Mongolio kaj Tibeto deklaris agnoskon kaj subtenon unu al la alia. La mongolaj reprezentantoj estis la ministro pri eksteraj aferoj Da Lama Ravdan kaj la generalo [[Manlaibaatar Damdinsüren]].
La tibetaj reprezentantoj, kiuj subskribis la dokumenton estis [[Agvan Dorĵiev]] (burjato, t.e. civitano de [[Rusio]]), Chijamts kaj Gendun-Galsan (tibeta civitano).
 
Ekzistas duboj pri la valideco de tiu traktato: la [[Thubten Gyatso|13-a dalai-lamao]] malkonsentis, ke li donis al Dorĵiev la aŭtoritaton negoci traktaton kun Mongolio. Ankoraŭ pli grave, nek la [[klerikaro]], nek la tibeta registaro iam ajn validigis la traktaton.<ref name="bell"> Bell, Charles, ''Tibet Past and Present'', 1924, pp 150f, 228f, 304f.</ref>
La rusa registaro subtenis, ke kiel rusa ŝtatano, Dorĵiev ne havis la eblon trakti diplomate por la [[dalai-lamao]].<ref>UK Foreign Office Archive: FO 371/1608; </ref>
La mongola teksto de la traktado estis publikigita de la mongola scienca akademio en [[1982]].<ref>Udo B. Barkmann, ''Geschichte der Mongolei'', Bonn 1999, p. 380f</ref>
<!-- Ne forviŝu, tradukende!
There exist some doubts to the validity of this treaty: the 13th Dalai Lama denied that he had authorized Dorjiev to negotiate a treaty with Mongolia. More importantly, neither the cleric nor the Tibetan government appeared to have ever ratified the treaty.<ref name="bell"> Bell, Charles, ''Tibet Past and Present'', 1924, pp 150f, 228f, 304f.</ref> The Russian government maintained that, as a Russian subject, Dorjiev could not possibly act in a diplomatic capacity on behalf of the Dalai Lama.<ref>UK Foreign Office Archive: FO 371/1608; </ref> The Mongolian text of the treaty has, been published by the Mongolian Academy of Sciences in 1982.<ref>Udo B. Barkmann, ''Geschichte der Mongolei'', Bonn 1999, p. 380f</ref>
 
In any case, the independence of both Tibet and Mongolia continued not to be recognized by most other powers, which continued to recognize at least the sucerainty of the Republic of China over these areas. The interests of Western powers (particularly [[Russia]] and the [[United Kingdom]]) in these areas were guaranteed by treaties with the Qing dynasty which the Republic of China pledged to uphold. By recognizing the independence of Mongolia or Tibet, the Western powers might have invalidated those treaties. In addition, there was a concern among the Western powers (again particularly Russia and UK) that recognizing Tibetan or Mongolian independence would allow those areas to come under the other power's influence, respectively, a situation which all concerned believed to be worse than a situation in which those areas were nominally under the control of a weak China.
News of the treaty aroused considerable suspicion amongst the British negotiators at the [[Simla Convention]], who feared that Russia might use the treaty to gain influence on Tibetan matters<ref name="bell"/>. While China ultimately did not sign the [[Simla Convention]]<ref>Treaty text of the [http://www.tibetjustice.org/materials/treaties/treaties16.html Simla Convention of 1914]</ref><ref name=Goldstein1989-75>The Chinese government initialed but refused to ratify the Agreement. See Goldstein, Melvyn C., ''A History of Modern Tibet'', p75 for details</ref>, a similar treaty, the tripartite Treaty of [[Kyakhta]], was signed by Mongolia, the Republic of China and Russia on [[25 May]], 1915.<ref>[http://countrystudies.us/mongolia/26.htm Mongolia - Modern Mongolia, 1911-84], Country Studies US</ref> The agreement affirmed Mongolia's complete autonomy in internal matters and Russian privileges in Mongolia, at the same time formally recognized China's suzerainty over the country.<ref>Treaty text quoted from B.L. Putnam Weale, [http://www.fullbooks.com/The-Fight-For-The-Republic-In-China8.html The Fight For The Republic In China]</ref>
-->
 
== Notoj kaj referencoj==
{{Referencoj|2}}
13 554

redaktoj