===Unio kun Egipto===
En 1820, la egipta armeo de la [[paŝao]] [[Muhammad Ali (paŝao)|Muhammad Ali]] estrita de lia filo Ismail Paŝa<ref name = Henderson> Henderson, K.D.D. "Survey of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 1898-1944", Longmans, Green and Co. Ltd., London, 1946</ref>
invadia kaj konkeris nordan [[Sudano]]n. La regiono havis deĉiamajn lingvajn, kulturajn, religiajn, kaj ekonomiajn ligojn kun [[Egipto]] kaj estis parte sub la sama regado je intermitaj periodoj ekde la tempo de la [[faraono]]j. Muhammad Ali estis agreseme praktikante politikon por etendo de sia povo with a view to possibly supplanting the [[ Ottoman Empire]] (to which he technically owed fealty) and saw Sudan as a valuable addition to his Egyptian dominions. During his reign and that of his successors, Egypt and Sudan came to be administered as one political entity, with all ruling members of the [[Muhammad Ali Dynasty]] seeking to preserve and extend the ''" unity of the Nile Valley"''. This policy was expanded and intensified most notably by Muhammad Ali 's grandson, [[Isma'il Pasha|Ismail Pasha]], under whose reign most of the remainder of modern-day Sudan was conquered.
With the opening of the [[ Suez Canal]] in 1869, Egypt and Sudan's economic and strategic importance increased enormously, attracting the imperial attentions of the [[ Great Powers]], particularly the United Kingdom. Ten years later in 1879, the immense foreign debt of Ismail Pasha's government served as the pretext for the Great Powers to force his [[ abdication]] and replacement by his son [[Tewfik Pasha]]. The manner of Tewfik's ascension at the hands of foreign powers greatly angered Egyptian and Sudanese nationalists who resented the ever-increasing influence of European governments and merchants in the affairs of the country. The situation was compounded by Tewfik's perceived corruption and mismanagement and ultimately culminated in the [[Orabi Revolt]]. With the survival of his throne in dire jeopardy, Tewfik appealed for British assistance. In 1882, at Tewfik's invitation, the British bombarded [[Alexandria]], Egypt's and Sudan's primary seaport, and subsequently invaded the country. British forces overthrew the Orabi government in [[Cairo]] and proceeded to occupy the rest of Egypt and Sudan in 1882. Though officially the authority of Tewfik had been restored, in reality the British largely took control of Egyptian and Sudanese affairs until 1932.<ref name = Henderson/>