Sano: Malsamoj inter versioj

142 bitokojn forigis ,  antaŭ 5 jaroj
* Medioj: ĉiuj aferoj rilataj al sano eksteraj al la [[homa korpo]] kaj pri ĉu la individuo havas malmultan aŭ nenian kontrolon;
* Biomedicina: ĉiuj aspektoj de sano, fizika kaj mensa, disvolvigitaj ene de la homa korpo influitaj de genetika formado.
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The maintenance and promotion of health is achieved through different combination of physical, [[mental health|mental]], and social well-being, together sometimes referred to as the ''"health triangle."''<ref>Georgia State University. 1998. [http://www2.gsu.edu/~wwwche/ ''Health Triangle Slides''].</ref><ref>Nutter S. (2003) ''The Health Triangle''. Anchor Points, Inc., ISBN 0974876003.</ref> The WHO's 1986 ''[[Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion]]'' further stated that health is not just a state, but also "a resource for everyday life, not the objective of living. Health is a positive concept emphasizing social and personal resources, as well as physical capacities."<ref>World Health Organization. [http://www.who.int/healthpromotion/conferences/previous/ottawa/en/index.html The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion.] Adopted at the First International Conference on Health Promotion, Ottawa, 21 November 1986 – WHO/HPR/HEP/95.1.</ref>
 
TheLa plutenado maintenancekaj andstimulado promotionde ofsano healthestas isatingita achievedpere throughde differentdiferencaj combinationkombinoj ofde physicalfizika, [[mentalmensa healthsano|mentalmensa]], andkaj socialsocia well-beingbonfarto, togetherkune sometimesfoje referredreferencata to as thekiel ''"health trianglesantriangulo."''<ref>Georgia State University. 1998. [http://www2.gsu.edu/~wwwche/ ''Health Triangle Slides''].</ref><ref>Nutter S. (2003) ''The Health Triangle''. Anchor Points, Inc., ISBN 0974876003.</ref> TheLa WHO'sinformo de 1986 de la ''[[OttawaOtava CharterĈarto forpor Health PromotionSandisvolvigo]]'' furtherde la Monda Organizaĵo pri Sano statedplu thatasertis healthke issano notne justestas aĝuste statestato, butsed alsoankaŭ "arimedo resourcepor forĉiutaga everyday lifevivo, notne thela objectivecelo of livingvivi. Health isSano aestas positivepozitiva conceptkoncepto emphasizingemfazante socialsociajn andkaj personalpersonajn resourcesrimedojn, assame wellkiel asla physicalfizikajn capacitieskapablojn."<ref>World Health Organization. [http://www.who.int/healthpromotion/conferences/previous/ottawa/en/index.html The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion.] AdoptedAdoptita atĉe thela FirstUnua InternationalInternacia ConferenceKonferenco onpor HealthSandisvolvigo, PromotionOtavo, Ottawa,21a 21de NovemberNovembro 1986 – WHO/HPR/HEP/95.1.</ref>
Focusing more on lifestyle issues and their relationships with functional health, data from the Alameda County Study suggested that people can improve their health via [[exercise]], enough [[sleep]], maintaining a healthy [[body weight]], limiting [[alcohol]] use, and avoiding [[smoking]].<ref>{{Harvard citation no brackets|Housman|Dorman|2005|pp=303–304}}. "The linear model supported previous findings, including regular exercise, limited alcohol consumption, abstinence from smoking, sleeping 7–8 hours a night, and maintenance of a healthy weight play an important role in promoting longevity and delaying illness and death." Citing {{cite journal | author = Wingard DL, Berkman LF, Brand RJ | title = A multivariate analysis of health-related practices: a nine-year mortality follow-up of the Alameda County Study | journal = Am J Epidemiol | volume = 116 | issue = 5 | pages = 765–775 | year = 1982 | pmid = 7148802 }}</ref> Health and [[illness]] can co-exist, as even people with multiple chronic diseases or terminal illnesses can consider themselves healthy.<ref>Vögele, Claus (2013). "On Living a Long, Healthy, and Happy Life, Full of Love, and with no Regrets, until Our Last Breath". ''Verhaltenstherapie'' '''23''':287–289.</ref>
 
FocusingFokuse morepli onsur lifestylevivostilaj issuesaferoj andkaj theirties relationshipsrilato withkun functionalfunkcianta healthsano, datala frominformoj theel la Studo de la Alameda CountyKantono Studysugestis, suggestedke thatla peoplehomoj canpovas improveplibonigi theirsian healthsanon viapere de [[exercisekorpekzercado]], enoughsufiĉe da [[sleepdormo]], maintainingretenante a healthysanan korpo-[[body weightpezo]]n, limitinglimigante uzadon de [[alcoholalkoholaĵo]] usej, andkaj avoidingevitante [[smokingfumado]]n.<ref>{{Harvard citationHousman no& brackets|Housman|Dorman| 2005|, pp=. 303–304}}. "The linear model supported previous findings, including regular exercise, limited alcohol consumption, abstinence from smoking, sleeping 7–8 hours a night, and maintenance of a healthy weight play an important role in promoting longevity and delaying illness and death." Citing {{cite journal | author = Wingard DL, Berkman LF, Brand RJ | title =(1982). "A multivariate analysis of health-related practices: a nine-year mortality follow-up of the Alameda County Study | journal =". Am J Epidemiol | volume = 116 | issue = (5 | pages =): 765–775. |PMID year7148802. =[https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7148802] 1982Konsultita |la pmid12a =de 7148802julio }}2015</ref> HealthSano andkaj [[illnessmalsano]] canpovas co-existkunekzisti, asĉar even peoplepersonoj withkun multiplemultaj chronickronikaj diseasesmalsanoj or terminal illnessesmortigaj canmalsanoj considerpovas themselveskonsideri healthysin sanaj.<ref>Vögele, Claus (2013). "On Living a Long, Healthy, and Happy Life, Full of Love, and with no Regrets, until Our Last Breath". ''Verhaltenstherapie'' '''23''':287–289.</ref>
The environment is often cited as an important factor influencing the health status of individuals. This includes characteristics of the [[natural environment]], the [[built environment]], and the [[social environment]]. Factors such as clean [[water]] and [[air]], adequate [[house|housing]], and safe communities and [[road traffic safety|roads]] all have been found to contribute to good health, especially to the health of infants and children.<ref name="The determinants of health"/><ref>UNESCO. [http://www.unesco.org/water/wwap/facts_figures/basic_needs.shtml ''The UN World Water Development Report: Facts and Figures – Meeting basic needs.''] Accessed 12 May 2011.</ref> Some studies have shown that a lack of neighborhood recreational spaces including natural environment leads to lower levels of personal satisfaction and higher levels of [[obesity]], linked to lower overall health and well being.<ref name="Fanny Price">{{cite journal | author = Björk J, Albin M, Grahn P, Jacobsson H, Ardö J, Wadbro J, Ostergren PO | title = Recreational Values of the Natural Environment in Relation to Neighborhood Satisfaction, Physical Activity, Obesity and Well being | journal = Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health | volume = 62 | issue = 4 | pages = e2 | year = 2008 | pmid = 18365329 | doi = 10.1136/jech.2007.062414 }}</ref> This suggests that the positive health benefits of natural space in urban neighborhoods should be taken into account in [[public policy]] and land use.
 
TheLa environmentmedio isestas oftenofte citedcitata askiel angrava importantfaktoro factorinfluante influencingla thesanstatuson health status ofde individualsindividuoj. ThisTio includesinkludas characteristicskarakterojn ofde thela [[naturalnatura environmentmedio]], thede la [[built environmentkonstrumedio]], andkaj thede la [[socialsocia environmentmedio]]. FactorsFaktoroj suchkiaj as cleanpuraj [[waterakvo]] andkaj [[airaero]], adequatetaŭga [[housedomo|housingloĝado]], andkaj safesekuraj communitieskomunumoj andkaj [[road traffic safetyŝoseo|roadsŝoseoj]] allkontribuas haveal beenbonkvalita found to contribute to good healthsano, especiallyĉefe toĉe thela healthsano ofde infantsinfanoj andkaj childrenbeboj.<ref name="The determinants of health"/><ref>UNESCO. [http://www.unesco.org/water/wwap/facts_figures/basic_needs.shtml ''The UN World Water Development Report: Facts and Figures – Meeting basic needs.''] AccessedAlirita 12la May12an de Majo 2011.</ref> SomeKelkaj studiesstudoj havemontris shownke thatmanko ade lacknajbaraj ofdistraj neighborhoodspacoj recreationalkiaj spacesnatura includingmedio naturalkondukas environmental leadspli tomalaltaj lowerniveloj levelsde ofpersona personalkontentigo satisfactionkaj andal higherpli levelsaltaj ofniveloj de [[obesitytropezeco]], linkedligite toal lowerpli overallmalaltaj healthsano andkaj well beingbonfarto.<ref name="Fanny Price">{{cite journal | author = Björk J, Albin M, Grahn P, Jacobsson H, Ardö J, Wadbro J, Ostergren PO | title = Recreational Values of the Natural Environment in Relation to Neighborhood Satisfaction, Physical Activity, Obesity and Well being | journal = Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health | volume = 62 | issue = 4 | pages = e2 | year = 2008 | pmid = 18365329 | doi = 10.1136/jech.2007.062414 }}</ref> ThisTio suggestssugestas thatke thepozitiva positivesano healthprofitas benefitsel ofnatura naturalspaco spaceen inurbaj urbanareoj neighborhoodskaj shouldtio bedevus takenesti intoatentita accountde inla publikaj [[public policypolitiko]]j andkaj de la landteritoria useuzado.
[[Genetics]], or inherited traits from parents, also play a role in determining the health status of individuals and populations. This can encompass both the [[genetic predisposition|predisposition]] to certain diseases and health conditions, as well as the habits and behaviors individuals develop through the lifestyle of their [[families]]. For example, genetics may play a role in the manner in which people cope with [[Stress (biology)|stress]], either mental, emotional or physical. For example, [[obesity]] is a very large problem in the United States{{citation needed|date=February 2014}} that contributes to bad mental health and causes stress in a lot of people's lives. (One difficulty is the issue raised by the [[nature versus nurture|debate]] over the relative strengths of genetics and other factors; interactions between genetics and environment may be of particular importance.)
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[[GeneticsGenetiko]], or inherited traits from parents, also play a role in determining the health status of individuals and populations. This can encompass both the [[genetic predisposition|predisposition]] to certain diseases and health conditions, as well as the habits and behaviors individuals develop through the lifestyle of their [[familiesfamilio]]j. For example, genetics may play a role in the manner in which people cope with [[StressStreso (biologybiologio)|stressstreso]], either mental, emotional or physical. For example, [[obesitytropezeco]] is a very large problem in the United States{{citation needed|date=February 2014}} that contributes to bad mental health and causes stress in a lot of people's lives. (One difficulty is the issue raised by the [[nature versus nurture|debate]] over the relative strengths of genetics and other factors; interactions between genetics and environment may be of particular importance.)
 
== Proverbo ==
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