Artropodoj: Malsamoj inter versioj

32 bitokojn forigis ,  antaŭ 3 jaroj
=== Diverseco ===
Ĉirkaŭkalkuloj de la nombro de artropodaj specioj varias inter 1,170,000 kaj 5 al 10 milionoj kaj tio estus ĉirkaŭ 80% el ĉiuj konataj vivantaj animalaj specioj.<ref>{{citation |author=Anna Thanukos |url=http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/arthropodstory |title=The Arthropod Story |publisher= University of California, Berkeley |accessdate=29a de Septembro, 2008}}</ref><ref>{{Citation |last1= Ødegaard |first1= Frode |year=2000 |title=How many species of arthropods? Erwin’s estimate revised. |journal= Biological Journal of the Linnean Society |publisher= |volume=71 |issue= 4|pages=583–597 |url=http://si-pddr.si.edu/dspace/bitstream/10088/1315/1/Odegaard_2000.pdf |doi=10.1006/bijl.2000.0468}}</ref> La nombro de specioj restas malfacile determinebla. Tio okazas ĉar la censomodelo supozigas projekton al aliaj regionoj por skaligi el kalkuloj je specifaj lokoj aplikite al la tuta mondo. Studo de 1992 ĉirkaŭkalkulis ke estas 500,000 specioj de animaloj kaj plantoj nur en Kostariko, el kiuj 365,000 estus artropodoj.<ref name="Thompson1994CoevolutionaryProcess" />
 
TheyIli areestas importantgravaj membersmembroj ofde marinemaraj, freshwaternesalakvaj, landteraj andkaj airaeraj [[ecosystemekosistemo]]sj, andkaj areestas oneunu ofel onlynur twodu majorĉefaj animalanimalgrupoj groupskiuj thatestis haveadaptiĝintaj adaptedal tovivo lifeen insekaj dry environmentsmedioj; thela otheralia isestas la [[amnioteamniulo]]sj, whosekies livingvivantaj membersmembroj areestas [[reptilereptilo]]sj, [[birdbirdo]]sj andkaj [[mammalmamulo]]sj.<ref name="RuppertFoxBarnes2004P518">[[#refRuppert|Ruppert, Fox & Barnes (2004)]], pp. 518–522</ref> OneUnu arthropodartropoda sub-groupgrupo, nome [[insectinsekto]]sj, isestas thela mostplej speciesspeci-richriĉa membermembro ofel allĉiuj [[Guildekologiaj (ecology)|ecologicalgildoj guilds]]en inmedioj landsurteraj and fresh-waterkaj environmentsnesalakvaj.<ref name="Thompson1994CoevolutionaryProcess">{{citation |author=Thompson, J. N. |title=The Coevolutionary Process |publisher=[[ University of Chicago Press]] |year=1994 |isbn=0-226-79760-0 |page=9 |url=https://books.google.com/?id=AyXPQzEwqPIC&pg=PA9&lpg=PA9&dq=arthropod+species+number}}</ref> TheLa lightestplej insectsmalpezaj weighinsektoj lesspezas thanmalpli ol 25&nbsp;micrograms mikrogramoj (millionthsmiliononoj of ade gramgramo),<ref name="Schmidt-Nielsen1984InsectSize" /> whiledum thela heaviestplej weighpeza overpezas ĉirkaŭ {{convert|70| g|oz}}.<ref>{{citation |url=http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/walker/ufbir/chapters/chapter_30.shtml |work=Book of Insect Records |title=Largest |last=Williams |first=D.M. |date=April21a 21de Aprilo, 2001 |publisher=[[UniversityUniversitato ofde FloridaFlorido]] |accessdate=June10a 10de Junio, 2009}}</ref> SomeKelkaj livingvivantaj [[crustaceankrustaco]]sj areestas muchmulte larger;pli forgrandaj; exampleekzemple, thela legskruroj ofde thela [[JapaneseJapana spideraranekrabo crab]]povas mayetendi spanĝis up4 to {{convert|4|m|ft}},<ref name="Schmidt-Nielsen1984InsectSize">{{citation |author=Schmidt-Nielsen, K. |title=Scaling: Why is Animal Size So Important? |publisher=[[Cambridge University Press]] |year=1984 |isbn=0-521-31987-0 |pages=42–55 |url=https://books.google.com/?id=8WkjD3L_avQC&pg=PA53&dq=arthropod+size+range |chapter=The strength of bones and skeletons}}</ref> withkaj thela heaviestplej ofpeza allel livingĉiuj arthropodsvivantaj beingartropodoj theestas la Amerika [[American lobsteromaro]], toppingpinte outje atĉirkaŭ over20 20&nbsp;kg (44&nbsp;lbs p.).
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They are important members of marine, freshwater, land and air [[ecosystem]]s, and are one of only two major animal groups that have adapted to life in dry environments; the other is [[amniote]]s, whose living members are [[reptile]]s, [[bird]]s and [[mammal]]s.<ref name="RuppertFoxBarnes2004P518">[[#refRuppert|Ruppert, Fox & Barnes (2004)]], pp. 518–522</ref> One arthropod sub-group, [[insect]]s, is the most species-rich member of all [[Guild (ecology)|ecological guilds]] in land and fresh-water environments.<ref name="Thompson1994CoevolutionaryProcess">{{citation |author=Thompson, J. N. |title=The Coevolutionary Process |publisher=[[University of Chicago Press]] |year=1994 |isbn=0-226-79760-0 |page=9 |url=https://books.google.com/?id=AyXPQzEwqPIC&pg=PA9&lpg=PA9&dq=arthropod+species+number}}</ref> The lightest insects weigh less than 25&nbsp;micrograms (millionths of a gram),<ref name="Schmidt-Nielsen1984InsectSize" /> while the heaviest weigh over {{convert|70|g|oz}}.<ref>{{citation |url=http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/walker/ufbir/chapters/chapter_30.shtml |work=Book of Insect Records |title=Largest |last=Williams |first=D.M. |date=April 21, 2001 |publisher=[[University of Florida]] |accessdate=June 10, 2009}}</ref> Some living [[crustacean]]s are much larger; for example, the legs of the [[Japanese spider crab]] may span up to {{convert|4|m|ft}},<ref name="Schmidt-Nielsen1984InsectSize">{{citation |author=Schmidt-Nielsen, K. |title=Scaling: Why is Animal Size So Important? |publisher=[[Cambridge University Press]] |year=1984 |isbn=0-521-31987-0 |pages=42–55 |url=https://books.google.com/?id=8WkjD3L_avQC&pg=PA53&dq=arthropod+size+range |chapter=The strength of bones and skeletons}}</ref> with the heaviest of all living arthropods being the [[American lobster]], topping out at over 20&nbsp;kg (44&nbsp;lbs).
 
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