Safarida dinastio: Malsamoj inter versioj

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(Nova paĝo kun '{{redaktata}} The '''Saffarid dynasty''' ({{lang-fa|سلسله صفاریان}}) was a Muslim Persianate<ref>''The Islamization of Central Asia in the Samanid era and the...')
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[[Dosiero:Saffarid dynasty 861-1003.png|eta|dekstre|250px|Safarida imperio je sia plej granda etendo dum la regado de Ja'kub ibn al-Lajth al-Saffar.]]{{redaktata}}
TheLa '''SaffaridSafarida dynastydinastio''' ({{lang-fa|سلسله صفاریان}}) was aestis [[MuslimIslamo|islama]] [[PersianatePersio|persiigita]]<ref>''The Islamization of Central Asia in the Samanid era and the reshaping of the Muslim world'', D.G. Tor, '''Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies''', University of London , Vol. 72, No. 2 (2009), 281;"''The Saffārids were the first of the Persianate dynasties to arise from the remains of the politically moribund ʿAbbāsid caliphate''".</ref> dynastydinastio fromel [[SistanSistano]] thatkiu ruled over parts of [[Greater Iran|eastern Iran]], with its capital at [[Zaranj]] (a city now in southwestern [[Afghanistan]]).<ref>''The Cambridge History of Iran'', by Richard Nelson Frye, William Bayne Fisher, John Andrew Boyle (Cambridge University Press, 1975: ISBN 0-521-20093-8), pg. 121.</ref><ref>''The Encyclopedia of World History'', ed. Peter N. Stearns and William Leonard Langer (Houghton Mifflin, 2001), 115.</ref> [[Greater Khorasan|Khorasan]], [[Name of Afghanistan|Afghanistan]] and [[Balochistan region|Balochistan]] from 861 to 1003.<ref name="Bosworth">[[Clifford Edmund Bosworth]], ''Encyclopædia Iranica'' [ SAFFARIDS]</ref> The dynasty, of Persian origin,<ref>"''First, the Saffarid amirs and maliks were rulers of Persian stock who for centuries championed the cause of the underdog against the might of the Abbasid caliphs.''" -- Savory, Roger M.. "''The History of the Saffarids of Sistan and the Maliks of Nimruz (247/861 to 949/1542-3).''" The Journal of the American Oriental Society. 1996</ref><ref>"''The provincial Persian Ya'kub, on the other hand, rejoiced in his plebeian origins, denounced the Abbasids as usurpers, and regarded both the caliphs and such governors from aristocratic Arab families as the Tahirids with contempt''". -- Ya'kub b. al-Layth al Saffar, C.E. Bosworth, '''The Encyclopaedia of Islam''', Vol. XI, p 255</ref><ref>''Saffarids: A Persian dynasty.....''", '''Encyclopedia of Arabic Literature''', Volume 2, edited by Julie Scott Meisami, Paul Starkey, p674</ref><ref>"''There were many local Persian dynasties, including the Tahirids, the Saffarids....''", '''Middle East, Western Asia, and Northern Africa''', by Ali Aldosari, p472.</ref><ref>"''Saffarid, the Coppersmith, the epithet of the founder of this Persian dynasty...''", ''The Arabic Contributions to the English Language: An Historical Dictionary'', by Garland Hampton Cannon, p288.</ref><ref>"''The Saffarids, the first Persian dynasty, to challenge the Abbasids...''", ''Historical Dictionary of the Ismailis'', by Farhad Daftary, p51.</ref> was founded by [[Ya'qub bin Laith as-Saffar]], born in 840 in a small town called Karnin (Qarnin), which was located east of Zaranj and west of Bost, in what is now Afghanistan - a native of Sistan and a local [[ayyar]], who worked as a coppersmith (''ṣaffār'') before becoming a [[warlord]]. He seized control of the Sistan region and began conquering most of Iran and Afghanistan, as well as parts of Pakistan, Tajikestan and Uzbekistan.
The Saffarids used their capital [[Zaranj]] as a base for an aggressive expansion eastward and westward. They first invaded the areas south of the [[Hindu Kush]] in Afghanistan and then overthrew the Persian [[Tahirid dynasty]], annexing Khorasan in 873. By the time of Ya'qub's death, he had conquered the [[Kabul|Kabul Valley]], [[Sindh]], [[Tocharistan]], [[Makran]] (Balochistan), [[Kerman]], [[Fars Province|Fars]], Khorasan, and nearly reached [[Baghdad]] but then suffered a defeat by the [[Abbasids]].<ref name="Bosworth"/>
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