Safarida dinastio: Malsamoj inter versioj

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[[Dosiero:Saffarid dynasty 861-1003.png|eta|dekstre|250px|Safarida imperio je sia plej granda etendo dum la regado de Ja'kub ibn al-Lajth al-Saffar.]]
La '''Safarida dinastio''' ({{lang-fa|سلسله صفاریان}}) estis [[Islamo|islama]] [[Persio|persiigita]]<ref>''The Islamization of Central Asia in the Samanid era and the reshaping of the Muslim world'', D.G. Tor, '''Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies''', University of London , Vol. 72, No. 2 (2009), 281;"''The Saffārids were the first of the Persianate dynasties to arise from the remains of the politically moribund ʿAbbāsid caliphate''".</ref> dinastio el [[Sistano]] kiu regis super partoj de [[Granda Irano|orienta Irano]], kun ĉefurbo en [[Zaranĝ]] (urbo nune en sudokcidenta [[Afganio]]).<ref>''The Cambridge History of Iran'', de Richard Nelson Frye, William Bayne Fisher, John Andrew Boyle (Cambridge University Press, 1975: ISBN 0-521-20093-8), pg. 121.</ref><ref>''The Encyclopedia of World History'', eld. Peter N. Stearns kaj William Leonard Langer (Houghton Mifflin, 2001), 115.</ref> Ankaŭ super Granda [[Ĥorasano]], [[Afganio]] kaj [[Baluĉio]] el 861 al 1003.<ref name="Bosworth">Clifford Edmund Bosworth, ''Encyclopædia Iranica'' [http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/saffarids SAFFARIDS]</ref> La dinastio, de Persa origino,<ref>"''First, the Saffarid amirs and maliks were rulers of Persian stock who for centuries championed the cause of the underdog against the might of the Abbasid caliphs.''" -- Savory, Roger M.. "''The History of the Saffarids of Sistan and the Maliks of Nimruz (247/861 to 949/1542-3).''" The Journal of the American Oriental Society. 1996</ref><ref>"''The provincial Persian Ya'kub, on the other hand, rejoiced in his plebeian origins, denounced the Abbasids as usurpers, and regarded both the caliphs and such governors from aristocratic Arab families as the Tahirids with contempt''". -- Ya'kub b. al-Layth al Saffar, C.E. Bosworth, '''The Encyclopaedia of Islam''', Vol. XI, p 255</ref><ref>''Saffarids: A Persian dynasty.....''", '''Encyclopedia of Arabic Literature''', Volume 2, edited by Julie Scott Meisami, Paul Starkey, p 674</ref><ref>"''There were many local Persian dynasties, including the Tahirids, the Saffarids....''", '''Middle East, Western Asia, and Northern Africa''', de Ali Aldosari, p472.</ref><ref>"''Saffarid, the Coppersmith, the epithet of the founder of this Persian dynasty...''", ''The Arabic Contributions to the English Language: An Historical Dictionary'', de Garland Hampton Cannon, p 288.</ref><ref>"''The Saffarids, the first Persian dynasty, to challenge the Abbasids...''", ''Historical Dictionary of the Ismailis'', de Farhad Daftary, p51.</ref> estis fondita de Ja'kub ibn al-Lajth al-Saffar, kiu naskiĝis en 840 en urbeto nome Karnin (Qarnin), kiu estis oriente de Zaranĝ kaj okcidente de Bost, en kio estas nune Afganio - do natura el Sistano kaj loka ''ajjar'', kiu laboris kiel kupraĵisto (''ṣaffār'') antaŭ iĝi [[militsenjoro]]. Li ekhavis kontrolon de la regiono Sistano kaj ekkonkeris plej el Irano kaj Afganio, same kiel partojn de [[Pakistano]], [[Taĝikio]] kaj [[Uzbekio]].
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The Saffarids used their capital [[Zaranj]] as a base for an aggressive expansion eastward and westward. They first invaded the areas south of the [[Hindu Kush]] in Afghanistan and then overthrew the Persian [[Tahirid dynasty]], annexing Khorasan in 873. By the time of Ya'qub's death, he had conquered the [[Kabul|Kabul Valley]], [[Sindh]], [[Tocharistan]], [[Makran]] (Balochistan), [[Kerman]], [[Fars Province|Fars]], Khorasan, and nearly reached [[Baghdad]] but then suffered a defeat by the [[Abbasids]].<ref name="Bosworth"/>
 
La Safaridoj uzis siajn ĉefurbon [[Zaranĝ]] kiel bazo por agresema etendo orienten kaj okcidenten. Ili unue invadis la areojn sude de [[Hindukuŝo]] en Afganio kaj poste superis la persan Tahiridan dinastion, aligante Ĥorasanon en 873. Je la tempo de la morto de Jakubo, li estis konkerinta la [[Kabulo|Kabulan Valon]], [[Sindo]]n, [[Baktrio]]n, Makran (Baluĉio), [[Kermano]]n, [[Provinco Farso|Farson]], Ĥorasanon, kaj preskaŭ atingis [[Bagdado]]n sed poste suferis malvenkon fare de [[Abasidoj]].<ref name="Bosworth"/>
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The Saffarid empire did not last long after Ya'qub's death. His brother and successor, [[Amr bin Laith]], was defeated at the [[Battle of Balkh]] against [[Ismail Samani]] in 900. Amr bin Laith was forced to surrender most of his territories to the new rulers. The Saffarids were subsequently confined to their heartland of Sistan, with their role reduced to that of [[vassal]]s of the [[Samanids]] and their successors.
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