Malfermi la ĉefan menuon


27 bitokojn forigis ,  antaŭ 3 jaroj
[[File:Crescenzi calendar.jpg|thumb|left|Agrikulturala kalendaro el manuskripto de [[Pietro de Crescenzi]].]]
ByĈirkaŭ la jaro {{sc|ad}}&nbsp;900, developmentsdisvolvigoj inen [[smeltingfandado|iron smeltingferfandado]] allowedebligis forpliigon increasedde productionproduktado inen EuropeEŭropo, leadingkondukante toal developmentsdisvolvigoj inen thela productionproduktado ofde agriculturalagrikulturaj implementsiloj suchkiaj as ploughsplugiloj, handpermanaj toolsiloj andkaj [[horse shoehufofero]]sj. TheLa [[carruca]]peza ploughplugilo improvedpliboniĝis onel thela earlierpli [[scratchfrua plough]]tirplugilo, withkun thela adoptionadopado ofde thela Chineseĉina deŝutila [[mouldboard ploughplugilo]] to turnpor overturnigi thela heavypezajn, wethumidajn soilsgrundojn ofde northernnorda EuropeEŭropo. This led to the clearing of northern European forests and an increase in agricultural production, which in turn led to an increase in population.<ref name=Backer>{{cite web |url= |title=Part 1 – Medieval European history |author=Backer, Patricia |publisher=San Jose State University |accessdate=24 April 2013 |work=History of Technology}}</ref> At the same time, farmers in Europe moved from a two field [[crop rotation]] to a three field crop rotation in which one field of three was left fallow every year. This resulted in increased productivity and nutrition, as the change in rotations permitted [[nitrogen-fixing]] [[legumes]] such as peas, lentils and beans. Improved [[horse harness]]es and the [[whippletree (mechanism)|whippletree]] further improved cultivation.<ref name=Backer/> [[Watermill]]s were introduced by the Romans, but were improved throughout the Middle Ages, along with [[windmill]]s, and used to grind grains into flour, to cut wood and to process flax and wool.<ref>{{cite book |url= |title=Daily Life in the Middle Ages |author=Newman, Paul B. |pages=88–89 |publisher=McFarland |isbn=0786450525 |year=2001}}</ref>
Crops included wheat, [[rye]], barley and [[oats]]. Peas, beans, and [[vetches]] became common from the 13th century onward as a [[fodder crop]] for animals and also for their [[nitrogen-fixation]] fertilizing properties. Crop yields peaked in the 13th century, and stayed more or less steady until the 18th century.<ref name=Campbell1>{{cite journal |last=Campbell |first=Bruce M. S. |author2=M. Overton |title=A New Perspective on Medieval and Early Modern Agriculture: Six Centuries of Norfolk Farming, c.1250-c.1850 |journal=Past and Present |year=1993 |volume=141 |pages=38–105 |doi=10.1093/past/141.1.38}}</ref> Though the limitations of medieval farming were once thought to have provided a ceiling for the population growth in the Middle Ages, recent studies<ref name=Campbell2>{{cite book |last=Campbell |first=Bruce M.S. |title=English Seigniorial Agriculture, 1250–1450 |year=2000 |publisher=Cambridge University Press |isbn=0-521-30412-1}}</ref><ref name=Stone1>{{cite book |last=Stone |first=David |title=Decision-Making in Medieval Agriculture |year=2005 |publisher=Oxford University Press |isbn=0-19-924776-5}}</ref> have shown that the technology of medieval agriculture was always sufficient for the needs of the people under normal circumstances, and that it was only during exceptionally harsh times, such as the [[Great Famine of 1315–1317|terrible weather of 1315–17]], that the needs of the population could not be met.<ref name="John Langdon 2010 20–23">{{cite book|title=The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages|year=2010|publisher=Oxford University Press|location=Oxford, England|isbn=978-0-19-866262-4|author=John Langdon|editor=Robert E. Bjork|pages=20–23}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last=Jordan |first=William Chester |title=The Great Famine: Northern Europe in the Early Fourteenth Century |url= |year=1997 |publisher=Princeton U.P.}}</ref>
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