Malfermi la ĉefan menuon

Ŝanĝoj

5 231 bitokojn aldonis ,  antaŭ 3 jaroj
 
=== Modernaj evoluoj ===
====Brita Agrikultura Revolucio====
{{Ĉefartikolo|Brita Agrikultura Revolucio|Mekanizita agrikulturo|Intensa agrikulturo}}
[[File:Charles Townshend, 2nd Viscount Townshend by Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt (2).jpg|thumb|left|upright|[[Charles Townshend, 2nd Viscount Townshend|Charles 'Turnip' Townshend]], agriculturalist who introduced four-field [[crop rotation]] and the cultivation of turnips]]
{{redaktata}}
Between the 16th century and the mid-19th century, Britain saw a large increase in agricultural productivity and net output. New agricultural practices like [[enclosure]], mechanization, [[four-field crop rotation]] to maintain soil nutrients, and [[selective breeding]] enabled an [[Malthusian trap|unprecedented population growth]] to 5.7 million in 1750, freeing up a significant percentage of the workforce, and thereby helped drive the [[Industrial Revolution]]. The productivity of wheat went up from about 19 bushels per acre in 1720 to around 30 bushels by 1840, marking a major turning point in history.<ref>{{Cite book |last=Snell |first=K.D.M. |title=Annals of the Labouring Poor, Social Change and Agrarian England 1660–1900 |year=1985 |publisher=Cambridge University Press |isbn=0-521-24548-6}} Chapter 4</ref>
{{redaktata}}
Advice on more productive techniques for farming began to appear in England in the mid-17th century, from writers such as [[Samuel Hartlib]], [[Walter Blith]] and others.<ref>{{Cite web|last=Thirsk|first=Joan|title='Blith, Walter (bap. 1605, d. 1654)'|publisher= Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, Jan 2008| url=http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/2655|accessdate=2 September 2011}}</ref> The main problem in sustaining agriculture in one place for a long time was the depletion of nutrients, most importantly nitrogen levels, in the soil. To allow the soil to regenerate, productive land was often let fallow and in some places [[crop rotation]] was used. The Dutch four-field rotation system was popularised by the British agriculturist [[Charles Townshend, 2nd Viscount Townshend|Charles Townshend]] in the 18th century. The system (wheat, turnips, barley and clover), opened up a fodder crop and grazing crop allowing livestock to be bred year-round. The use of clover was especially important as the legume roots replenished soil nitrates.<ref>Jaap Harskamp, "The Low Countries and the English Agricultural Revolution." (2009): 32-41. [http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/gfc.2009.9.3.32 in JSTOR]</ref>
 
[[File:ShireDraftHorse.jpg|thumb|right|[[Shire horse|Shires]] [[selective breeding|selectively bred]] for size in the 18th century]]
{{redaktata}}
The mechanisation and rationalisation of agriculture was another important factor. [[Robert Bakewell (farmer)|Robert Bakewell]] and [[Thomas Coke, 1st Earl of Leicester (seventh creation)|Thomas Coke]] introduced [[selective breeding]], and initiated a process of inbreeding to maximise desirable traits from the mid 18th century, such as the [[New Leicester]] sheep. Machines were invented to improve the efficiency of various agricultural operation, such as [[Jethro Tull (agriculturist)|Jethro Tull]]'s [[seed drill]] of 1701 that mechanised seeding at the correct depth and spacing and [[Andrew Meikle]]'s [[threshing machine]] of 1784. Ploughs were steadily improved, from Joseph Foljambe's [[Plough#Heavy Ploughs|Rotherham iron plough]] in 1730<ref>[http://www.rotherhamweb.co.uk/h/plough.htm The Rotherham Plough]</ref> to [[James Small (inventor)|James Small]]'s improved "Scots Plough" metal in 1763. In 1789 [[Ransomes, Sims & Jefferies]] was producing 86 plough models for different soils.<ref>Barlow, Robert Stockes; "300 Years of Farm Implements and Machinery 1630–1930"; Krause Publications (2003); p.33; ISBN 978-0873496322</ref> Powered farm machinery began with [[Richard Trevithick]]'s [[stationary steam engine]], used to drive a threshing machine, in 1812.<ref name=Hodge>{{cite book | last=Hodge | first=James | title=Richard Trevithick | publisher=Shire Publications | year=1973 | isbn=0-85263-177-4 | page=30}}</ref> Mechanisation spread to other farm uses through the 19th century. The first petrol-driven [[tractor]] was built in America by [[John Froelich]] in 1892.<ref>{{cite book |author1=Macmillan, Don |author2=Broehl, Wayne G. |title=The John Deere Tractor Legacy |publisher=Voyageur Press |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=3cJeffKoriEC&pg=PA45 |page=45}}</ref>
{{redaktata}}
The scientific investigation of fertilization began at the [[Rothamsted Experimental Station]] in 1843 by [[John Bennet Lawes]]. He investigated the impact of inorganic and organic fertilizers on crop yield and founded one of the first artificial fertilizer manufacturing factories in 1842. Fertilizer, in the shape of [[sodium nitrate]] deposits in [[Chile]], was imported to Britain by [[John Thomas North]] as well as [[guano]] (birds droppings). The first commercial process for fertilizer production was the obtaining of ''[[super phosphate|phosphate]]'' from the dissolution of [[coprolite]]s in [[sulphuric acid]].<ref name="pdmhs.com">Coprolite Fertilizer Industry in Britain [http://www.pdmhs.com/PDFs/ScannedBulletinArticles/Bulletin%2014-5%20-%20The%20Origins%20and%20Development%20of%20the%20British%20.pdf] Accessed 3 April 2012</ref>
 
== Laborantaro ==
162 090

redaktoj