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15 bitokojn aldonis ,  antaŭ 3 jaroj
====Brita Agrikultura Revolucio====
{{Ĉefartikolo|Brita Agrikultura Revolucio|Mekanizita agrikulturo|Intensa agrikulturo}}
[[File:Charles Townshend, 2nd Viscount Townshend by Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt (2).jpg|thumb|left|upright|[[Charles Townshend]], 2a Vicgrafo Townshend, agrikulturisto kiu enkondukis la [[kultivciklo]]n kvarkampan kaj la kultivadon de rapoj.]]
Inter la 16a kaj mezo de la 19a jarcentoj, en Britio okazis granda pliigo en agrikultura produktiveco kaj rezulta produkto. Novaj agrikulturaj praktikoj kiaj [[Ĉirkaŭbaro|ĉirkaŭbarado]], mekanizado, [[kultivciklo]] kvarkampa por reteni grundonutraĵojn, kaj [[selekta bredado]] ebligis senprecedencan kreskon de loĝantaro al 5.7 milionoj en 1750, liberigante gravan procenton de laborforto, kaj tiele helpante la aperon de la [[Industria Revolucio]]. La produktiveco de tritikproduktado atingis el ĉirkaŭ 19 buŝeloj por akreo en 1720 al ĉirkaŭ 30 buŝeloj ĉirkaŭ 1840, markante ĉefan altigon en historio.<ref>{{Cite book |last=Snell |first=K.D.M. |title=Annals of the Labouring Poor, Social Change and Agrarian England 1660–1900 |year=1985 |publisher=Cambridge University Press |isbn=0-521-24548-6}} Chapter 4</ref>
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Advice on more productive techniques for farming began to appear in England in the mid-17th century, from writers such as [[Samuel Hartlib]], [[Walter Blith]] and others.<ref>{{Cite web|last=Thirsk|first=Joan|title='Blith, Walter (bap. 1605, d. 1654)'|publisher= Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, Jan 2008| url=http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/2655|accessdate=2 September 2011}}</ref> The main problem in sustaining agriculture in one place for a long time was the depletion of nutrients, most importantly nitrogen levels, in the soil. To allow the soil to regenerate, productive land was often let fallow and in some places [[crop rotation]] was used. The Dutch four-field rotation system was popularised by the British agriculturist [[Charles Townshend, 2nd Viscount Townshend|Charles Townshend]] in the 18th century. The system (wheat, turnips, barley and clover), opened up a fodder crop and grazing crop allowing livestock to be bred year-round. The use of clover was especially important as the legume roots replenished soil nitrates.<ref>Jaap Harskamp, "The Low Countries and the English Agricultural Revolution." (2009): 32-41. [http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/gfc.2009.9.3.32 in JSTOR]</ref>
 
AdviceStudoj onpri morepli productiveproduktivaj techniquesteknikoj forpor farmingfarmado beganekaperis toen appearAnglio inen Englandla inmezo thede mid-17thla century17a jarcento, fromfare writersde suchverkistoj askiaj [[Samuel Hartlib]], [[Walter Blith]] andkaj othersaliaj.<ref>{{Cite web|last=Thirsk|first=Joan|title='Blith, Walter (bap. 1605, d. 1654)'|publisher= Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; onlinereta edneldono, Jan 2008| url=http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/2655|accessdate=22a Septemberde Septembro 2011}}</ref> TheLa mainĉefa problemproblemo inpor sustainingelteni agricultureagrikulturon inen oneunu placeloko fordum alonga longtempo timeestis wasla theelĉerpado depletionde of nutrientsnutraĵoj, mostĉefe de la importantlygravaj nitrogennitrogenaj levelsniveloj, inen thela soilgrundo. ToPor allowpermesi theal soilla togrundo regenerateregenereĝi, productiveproduktiva landtero wasdevas oftenofte letesti fallowlasata andnekultivita inkaj someen placeskelkaj lokoj necesas [[crop rotationkultivciklo]]. wasLa used.nederlanda Thesistemo Dutchde four-fieldkultivciklo rotationkvarkampa system waskvarplanta popularisedestis bypopularigita thede Britishla agriculturistbrita agrikulturisto [[Charles Townshend, 2nd Viscount Townshend|Charles Townshend]] inen thela 18th18a centuryjarcento. TheTiu systemsistemo (wheattritiko, turnipsrapo, barleyhordeo andkaj clovertrifolio), openedebligis upgrandkvantan arikolotn fodderkaj cropfuraĝon andpor grazingke cropla allowingbrutaro livestockmanĝu tola betutan bred year-roundjaron. TheLa useuzado ofde [[trifolio]] cloverestis wasspeciale especiallygrava importantĉar asla thelegomaj legumeradikoj rootsreplenigas replenishedla soilgrundajn nitratesnitratojn.<ref>Jaap Harskamp, "The Low Countries and the English Agricultural Revolution." (2009): 32-41. [http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/gfc.2009.9.3.32 in JSTOR]</ref>
[[File:ShireDraftHorse.jpg|thumb|right|[[Shire horse|Shires]] [[selective breeding|selectively bred]] for size in the 18th century]]
 
[[File:ShireDraftHorse.jpg|thumb|right|[[Selekta bredado]] de [[Shire ĉevalo|Shire]] por ties grando okazis el la 18a jarcento.]]
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The mechanisation and rationalisation of agriculture was another important factor. [[Robert Bakewell (farmer)|Robert Bakewell]] and [[Thomas Coke, 1st Earl of Leicester (seventh creation)|Thomas Coke]] introduced [[selective breeding]], and initiated a process of inbreeding to maximise desirable traits from the mid 18th century, such as the [[New Leicester]] sheep. Machines were invented to improve the efficiency of various agricultural operation, such as [[Jethro Tull (agriculturist)|Jethro Tull]]'s [[seed drill]] of 1701 that mechanised seeding at the correct depth and spacing and [[Andrew Meikle]]'s [[threshing machine]] of 1784. Ploughs were steadily improved, from Joseph Foljambe's [[Plough#Heavy Ploughs|Rotherham iron plough]] in 1730<ref>[http://www.rotherhamweb.co.uk/h/plough.htm The Rotherham Plough]</ref> to [[James Small (inventor)|James Small]]'s improved "Scots Plough" metal in 1763. In 1789 [[Ransomes, Sims & Jefferies]] was producing 86 plough models for different soils.<ref>Barlow, Robert Stockes; "300 Years of Farm Implements and Machinery 1630–1930"; Krause Publications (2003); p.33; ISBN 978-0873496322</ref> Powered farm machinery began with [[Richard Trevithick]]'s [[stationary steam engine]], used to drive a threshing machine, in 1812.<ref name=Hodge>{{cite book | last=Hodge | first=James | title=Richard Trevithick | publisher=Shire Publications | year=1973 | isbn=0-85263-177-4 | page=30}}</ref> Mechanisation spread to other farm uses through the 19th century. The first petrol-driven [[tractor]] was built in America by [[John Froelich]] in 1892.<ref>{{cite book |author1=Macmillan, Don |author2=Broehl, Wayne G. |title=The John Deere Tractor Legacy |publisher=Voyageur Press |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=3cJeffKoriEC&pg=PA45 |page=45}}</ref>
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