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La scienca esplorado de sterko komencis en la ''Rothamsted Experimental Station'' en 1843 fare de [[John Bennet Lawes]]. Li esploris la efikon de neorganika kaj organika sterkoj super rikoltoj kaj fondis unu el la unuaj fabrikoj de artefaritaj sterkoj en 1842. Sterkoj, ĉe la kuŝejoj de [[natria nitrato]] en [[Ĉilio]], estis importita al Britio de [[John Thomas North]] same kiel la [[guano]] (birdofekaĵoj). La unua komerca procezo por sterkoproduktdo estis la atingo de ''[[fosfato]]'' el la dissolvo de [[koprolito]]j en [[sulfata acido]].<ref name="pdmhs.com">Coprolite Fertilizer Industry in Britain [http://www.pdmhs.com/PDFs/ScannedBulletinArticles/Bulletin%2014-5%20-%20The%20Origins%20and%20Development%20of%20the%20British%20.pdf] Alirita la 3an de Aprilo 2012</ref>
 
====20a jarcento====
[[File:Agriculture (Plowing) CNE-v1-p58-H.jpg|eta|dekstre|Bildo de [[traktoro]] de la 20a jarcento pluganta kampon de [[luzerno]].]]
 
[[Dan Albone]] konstruis la unuan komerce sukcesan benzin-energian traktoron de ĝeneralaj celoj en 1901, kaj la traktoro ''Farmall'' de 1923 de [[International Harvester]] markis ŝlosilan punkton en la anstataŭo de tiranimaloj (ĉefe ĉevaloj) pere de maŝinoj. Ekde tiam, mem-pelitaj mekanikaj rikoltiloj ([[Kombajno|kombajnoj]]), plantiloj, transplantiloj kaj alia ekiparo estis disvolvigita, plie revoluciante agrikulturon.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/hort_306/text/lec32.pdf |title=Agricultural Scientific Revolution: Mechanical |author=Janick, Jules |publisher=Purdue University |accessdate=24a de Majo 2013}}</ref> Tiuj inventoj ebligis ke farmotaskoj estu faritaj rapide je skalo antaŭe malebla, kio kondukis al fakto ke modernaj farmoj produktu multe pli grandajn volumojn de alt-kvalitaj produktoj por terunuo.<ref>{{cite journal|url=http://www.nae.edu/Publications/Bridge/52548/52645.aspx |title=The Impact of Mechanization on Agriculture |journal=The Bridge on Agriculture and Information Technology |date=2011 |volume=41 |number=3 |author=Reid, John F.}}</ref>
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La [[procezo Haber|metodo Haber-Bosch]] por sintezigi [[ammonium nitrate]] represented a major breakthrough and allowed [[crop yields]] to overcome previous constraints. It was first patented by German chemist [[Fritz Haber]]. In 1910 [[Carl Bosch]], while working for German chemical company [[BASF]], successfully commercialized the process and secured further patents. In the years after [[World War II]], the use of synthetic fertilizer increased rapidly, in sync with the increasing world population.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.fertilizer.org/ifa/HomePage/SUSTAINABILITY/Climate-change/A-historical-perspective.html |title=A Historical Perspective |publisher=International Fertilizer Industry Association |accessdate=7 May 2013}}</ref>
 
In the past century agriculture has been characterized by increased productivity, the substitution of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides for labor, [[water pollution]],<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Moss |first1=Brian |title=Water Pollution by Agriculture |journal=Phil. Trans. Royal Society B |date=2008 |volume=363 |pages=659–666 |doi=10.1098/rstb.2007.2176 |url=https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Brian_Moss2/publication/6173580_Water_Pollution_by_Agriculture/links/53d607050cf220632f3d6bf2.pdf}}</ref> and [[farm subsidies]].<ref>{{cite web |url=http://eur-lex.europa.eu/budget/data/D2010_VOL4/EN/nmc-titleN123A5/index.html |accessdate=16 June 2016 |title=Title 05 – Agriculture and rural development}}</ref> Other applications of scientific research since 1950 in agriculture include [[gene manipulation]],<ref name="James 1996">{{cite web |last=James |first=Clive|title=Global Review of the Field Testing and Commercialization of Transgenic Plants: 1986 to 1995 |url=http://www.isaaa.org/kc/Publications/pdfs/isaaabriefs/Briefs%201.pdf |publisher=The International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications |accessdate=17 July 2010 |year=1996}}</ref><ref name="Fray">Weasel, Lisa H. 2009. ''Food Fray.'' Amacom Publishing</ref> [[Hydroponics]],<ref name="Douglas1975">Douglas, James S., ''Hydroponics,'' 5th ed. Bombay: Oxford UP, 1975. 1–3</ref> and the development of economically viable [[biofuel]]s such as [[Ethanol fuel|Ethanol]].<ref name=UNEP2009>{{cite web |url=http://www.unep.fr/scp/rpanel/pdf/Assessing_Biofuels_Full_Report.pdf |title=Towards Sustainable Production and Use of Resources: Assessing Biofuels |date=16 October 2009|accessdate=24 October 2009 |publisher=[[United Nations Environment Programme]]}}</ref>
 
In recent years there has been a backlash against the [[externalities|external]] environmental effects of conventional agriculture, resulting in the [[organic movement]].<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.motherjones.com/tom-philpott/2013/04/history-nitrogen-fertilizer-ammonium-nitrate |author=Philpott, Tom |title=A Brief History of Our Deadly Addiction to Nitrogen Fertilizer |date=19 April 2013 |accessdate=7 May 2013 |publisher=Mother Jones}}</ref> Famines continued to sweep the globe through the 20th century. Through the effects of climactic events, government policy, war and crop failure, millions of people died in each of at least ten famines between the 1920s and the 1990s.<ref name="smh.com.au">{{cite journal |url=http://www.smh.com.au/world/ten-worst-famines-of-the-20th-century-20110815-1iu2w.html |title=Ten worst famines of the 20th century |journal=Sydney Morning Herald |date=15 August 2011}}</ref>
 
== Laboristaro ==
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