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52 bitokojn aldonis ,  antaŭ 3 jaroj
 
[[Dan Albone]] konstruis la unuan komerce sukcesan benzin-energian traktoron de ĝeneralaj celoj en 1901, kaj la traktoro ''Farmall'' de 1923 de [[International Harvester]] markis ŝlosilan punkton en la anstataŭo de tiranimaloj (ĉefe ĉevaloj) pere de maŝinoj. Ekde tiam, mem-pelitaj mekanikaj rikoltiloj ([[Kombajno|kombajnoj]]), plantiloj, transplantiloj kaj alia ekiparo estis disvolvigita, plie revoluciante agrikulturon.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/hort_306/text/lec32.pdf |title=Agricultural Scientific Revolution: Mechanical |author=Janick, Jules |publisher=Purdue University |accessdate=24a de Majo 2013}}</ref> Tiuj inventoj ebligis ke farmotaskoj estu faritaj rapide je skalo antaŭe malebla, kio kondukis al fakto ke modernaj farmoj produktu multe pli grandajn volumojn de alt-kvalitaj produktoj por terunuo.<ref>{{cite journal|url=http://www.nae.edu/Publications/Bridge/52548/52645.aspx |title=The Impact of Mechanization on Agriculture |journal=The Bridge on Agriculture and Information Technology |date=2011 |volume=41 |number=3 |author=Reid, John F.}}</ref>
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La [[procezo Haber|metodo Haber-Bosch]] por sintezigi [[ammonium nitrate]] represented a major breakthrough and allowed [[crop yields]] to overcome previous constraints. It was first patented by German chemist [[Fritz Haber]]. In 1910 [[Carl Bosch]], while working for German chemical company [[BASF]], successfully commercialized the process and secured further patents. In the years after [[World War II]], the use of synthetic fertilizer increased rapidly, in sync with the increasing world population.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.fertilizer.org/ifa/HomePage/SUSTAINABILITY/Climate-change/A-historical-perspective.html |title=A Historical Perspective |publisher=International Fertilizer Industry Association |accessdate=7 May 2013}}</ref>
 
La [[procezo Haber|metodo Haber-Bosch]] por sintezigi [[ammoniumAmonia nitratenitrato|amonian nitraton]] representedreprezentis aĉefan majorprogreson breakthroughkiu andebligis allowedke [[cropla yields]]agrikultura toprodukto overcomesuperu previousantauyxajn constraintsmalfacilaĵojn. ItĜi wasestis firstunue patentedpatentita byde Germangermana chemistkemiisto [[Fritz Haber]]. InEn 1910 [[Carl Bosch]], whilelaborante workingpor forgermana Germankemia chemical companyentrepreno [[BASF]], successfullysukcese commercializedkomercigis thela processprocezon andkaj securedsekurigis furtherpliajn patentspatentojn. InEn the yearsla afterjaroj post [[World WarDua IIMondmilito]], thela useuzado ofde syntheticsinteza fertilizersterko increasedpliiĝis rapidlyrapide, in synckongrue withkun thela increasingpliiĝanta worldmonda populationloĝantaro.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.fertilizer.org/ifa/HomePage/SUSTAINABILITY/Climate-change/A-historical-perspective.html |title=A Historical Perspective |publisher=International Fertilizer Industry Association |accessdate=77a de MayMajo 2013}}</ref>
In the past century agriculture has been characterized by increased productivity, the substitution of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides for labor, [[water pollution]],<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Moss |first1=Brian |title=Water Pollution by Agriculture |journal=Phil. Trans. Royal Society B |date=2008 |volume=363 |pages=659–666 |doi=10.1098/rstb.2007.2176 |url=https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Brian_Moss2/publication/6173580_Water_Pollution_by_Agriculture/links/53d607050cf220632f3d6bf2.pdf}}</ref> and [[farm subsidies]].<ref>{{cite web |url=http://eur-lex.europa.eu/budget/data/D2010_VOL4/EN/nmc-titleN123A5/index.html |accessdate=16 June 2016 |title=Title 05 – Agriculture and rural development}}</ref> Other applications of scientific research since 1950 in agriculture include [[gene manipulation]],<ref name="James 1996">{{cite web |last=James |first=Clive|title=Global Review of the Field Testing and Commercialization of Transgenic Plants: 1986 to 1995 |url=http://www.isaaa.org/kc/Publications/pdfs/isaaabriefs/Briefs%201.pdf |publisher=The International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications |accessdate=17 July 2010 |year=1996}}</ref><ref name="Fray">Weasel, Lisa H. 2009. ''Food Fray.'' Amacom Publishing</ref> [[Hydroponics]],<ref name="Douglas1975">Douglas, James S., ''Hydroponics,'' 5th ed. Bombay: Oxford UP, 1975. 1–3</ref> and the development of economically viable [[biofuel]]s such as [[Ethanol fuel|Ethanol]].<ref name=UNEP2009>{{cite web |url=http://www.unep.fr/scp/rpanel/pdf/Assessing_Biofuels_Full_Report.pdf |title=Towards Sustainable Production and Use of Resources: Assessing Biofuels |date=16 October 2009|accessdate=24 October 2009 |publisher=[[United Nations Environment Programme]]}}</ref>
 
InEn thela pastpasinta centuryjarcento agricultureagrikulturo haskarakteriziĝis beenpro characterizedpliigita by increased productivityproduktiveco, thela substitutionanstataŭo ofde syntheticsintezaj fertilizerssterkoj andkaj pesticidespesticidoj forpro laborlaboro, [[water pollutionakvopoluado]],<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Moss |first1=Brian |title=Water Pollution by Agriculture |journal=Phil. TransTrad. Royal Society B |date=2008 |volume=363 |pages=659–666 |doi=10.1098/rstb.2007.2176 |url=https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Brian_Moss2/publication/6173580_Water_Pollution_by_Agriculture/links/53d607050cf220632f3d6bf2.pdf}}</ref> andkaj [[farmAgrikultura subsidiessubvencio|agrikulturaj subvencioj]].<ref>{{cite web |url=http://eur-lex.europa.eu/budget/data/D2010_VOL4/EN/nmc-titleN123A5/index.html |accessdate=1616a de JuneJunio 2016 |title=Title 05 – Agriculture and rural development}}</ref> OtherAliaj applicationsaplikaĵoj ofde scientificscienca researchesplorado sinceekde 1950 inen agricultureagrikulturo includeestas [[gene manipulationGentekniko|genmanipulado]],<ref name="James 1996">{{cite web |last=James |first=Clive|title=Global Review of the Field Testing and Commercialization of Transgenic Plants: 1986 to 1995 |url=http://www.isaaa.org/kc/Publications/pdfs/isaaabriefs/Briefs%201.pdf |publisher=The International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications |accessdate=1717a Julyde Julio 2010 |year=1996}}</ref><ref name="Fray">Weasel, Lisa H. 2009. ''Food Fray.'' Amacom Publishing</ref> [[Hydroponicshidroponio]],<ref name="Douglas1975">Douglas, James S., ''Hydroponics,'' 5th5a edeld. Bombay: Oxford UP, 1975. 1–3</ref> andkaj thela developmentdisvolvigo ofde economicallyekonomie viablevideblaj [[biofuelBiobrulaĵo|biobrulaĵoj]]s such askiaj [[Ethanol fuelBioetanolo|Ethanoletanolo]].<ref name=UNEP2009>{{cite web |url=http://www.unep.fr/scp/rpanel/pdf/Assessing_Biofuels_Full_Report.pdf |title=Towards Sustainable Production and Use of Resources: Assessing Biofuels |date=1616a Octoberde Oktobro 2009|accessdate=2424a de OctoberOktobro 2009 |publisher=[[UnitedMediprogramo Nationsde EnvironmentUnuiĝintaj ProgrammeNacioj]]}}</ref>
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In recent years there has been a backlash against the [[externalities|external]] environmental effects of conventional agriculture, resulting in the [[organic movement]].<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.motherjones.com/tom-philpott/2013/04/history-nitrogen-fertilizer-ammonium-nitrate |author=Philpott, Tom |title=A Brief History of Our Deadly Addiction to Nitrogen Fertilizer |date=19 April 2013 |accessdate=7 May 2013 |publisher=Mother Jones}}</ref> Famines continued to sweep the globe through the 20th century. Through the effects of climactic events, government policy, war and crop failure, millions of people died in each of at least ten famines between the 1920s and the 1990s.<ref name="smh.com.au">{{cite journal |url=http://www.smh.com.au/world/ten-worst-famines-of-the-20th-century-20110815-1iu2w.html |title=Ten worst famines of the 20th century |journal=Sydney Morning Herald |date=15 August 2011}}</ref>
 
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