Rikardo la 2-a (Shakespeare): Malsamoj inter versioj

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Kvankam la unua ''First Folio'' (1623) eldono de la verkoj de Shakespeare listigas la verkon kiel historia teatraĵo, la pli frua ''Quarto'' eldono de 1597 nomas ĝin ''The tragedie of King Richard the second''.
 
==Intrigo==
[[File:Richard II in Prison.jpg|thumb|Akvarelo de Rikardo la 2-a en prizono en la kastelo Pomfret. J. Coghlan, komenco de la 19a jarcento.]]
{{Intrigo}}
La verko montras nur la du lastajn jarojn de la vivo de Rikardo, el 1398 al 1400. La Unua Akto ekas kun la reĝo Rikardo sidanta majeste sur sia trono, kiam oni postulis de li arbitracii disputon inter Thomas Mowbray kaj la kuzo de Rikardo, nome [[Henriko la 4-a (Anglio)|Henry Bolingbroke, posta Henriko la 4-a]], kiu estis akuzinta Mowbray misuzi monon donitan al li fare de Rikardo por la soldatoj de la reĝo kaj murdi la onklon de Bolingbroke, nome la Duko de Gloucester. La patro de Bolingbroke, nome Johano de Ganto, 1a Duko de Lankastro, dume, kredas Rikardon mem kiel respondeca pri la murdo de sia frato. Post kelkaj klopodoj por trankviligi ambaŭ, Rikardo konsentas kaj oni decidas, ke la afero estu solvita per la establita metodo de luktojuĝo inter Bolingbroke kaj Mowbray, spite la kontraŭon de Ganto.
{{redaktata}}
The tournament scene is very formal with a long, ceremonial introduction, but as the combatants are about to fight, Richard interrupts and sentences both to banishment from England. Bolingbroke is originally sentenced to ten years' banishment, but Richard reduces this to six years upon seeing John of Gaunt's grieving face, while Mowbray is banished permanently. The king's decision can be seen as the first mistake in a series leading eventually to his overthrow and death, since it is an error which highlights many of his character flaws, displaying as it does indecisiveness (in terms of whether to allow the duel to go ahead), abruptness (Richard waits until the last possible moment to cancel the duel), and arbitrariness (there is no apparent reason why Bolingbroke should be allowed to return and Mowbray not). In addition, the decision fails to dispel the suspicions surrounding Richard's involvement in the death of the Duke of Gloucester – in fact, by handling the situation so high-handedly and offering no coherent explanation for his reasoning, Richard only manages to appear more guilty. Mowbray predicts that the king will sooner or later fall at the hands of Bolingbroke.
 
John of Gaunt dies and Richard II seizes all of his land and money. This angers the nobility, who accuse Richard of wasting England's money, of taking Gaunt's money (belonging by rights to his son, Bolingbroke) to fund war in Ireland, of taxing the commoners, and of fining the nobles for crimes committed by their ancestors. They then help Bolingbroke to return secretly to England, with a plan to overthrow Richard II. There remain, however, subjects who continue faithful to the king, among them Bushy, Bagot, Green and the [[Edward of Norwich, 2nd Duke of York|Duke of Aumerle]] (son of the [[Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York|Duke of York]]), cousin of both Richard and Bolingbroke. When King Richard leaves England to attend to the war in Ireland, Bolingbroke seizes the opportunity to assemble an army and invades the north coast of England. Executing both Bushy and Green, he wins over the Duke of York, whom Richard has left in charge of his government in his absence.
 
Upon Richard's return, Bolingbroke not only reclaims his lands but lays claim to the very throne. Crowning himself [[Henry IV of England|King Henry IV]], he has Richard taken prisoner to the [[Pontefract Castle|castle of Pomfret]]. Aumerle and others plan a rebellion against the new king, but York discovers his son's treachery and reveals it to Henry, who spares Aumerle as a result of the intercession of the Duchess of York while executing the other conspirators. After interpreting King Henry's "living fear" as a reference to the still-living Richard, an ambitious nobleman (Exton) goes to the prison and murders him. King Henry repudiates the murderer and vows to journey to Jerusalem to cleanse himself of his part in Richard's death.
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