Franca lingvo: Malsamoj inter versioj

7 196 bitokojn aldonis ,  antaŭ 5 monatoj
[[Sub-Sahara Afriko]] estas la regiono kie la franca lingvo plej verŝajne estos etendiĝanta, pro la disvastigo de edukado kaj rapida populacikresko.<ref>[ France-Diplomatie] [
27a de julio 2009. "Furthermore, the demographic growth of Southern hemisphere countries leads us to anticipate a new increase in the overall number of French speakers."</ref> ItEn isAfriko alsoestas wherekie thela languagefranca haslingvo evolvedplej theevoluis mosten inla recentĵusaj yearsjaroj.<ref> [ "Le français, langue en évolution. Dans beaucoup de pays francophones, surtout sur le continent africain, une proportion importante de la population ne parle pas couramment le français (même s'il est souvent la langue officielle du pays). Ce qui signifie qu'au fur et à mesure que les nouvelles générations vont à l'école, le nombre de francophones augmente : on estime qu'en 2015, ceux-ci seront deux fois plus nombreux qu'aujourd'hui.]"</ref><ref> [ c) Le sabir franco-africain]: {{lang|fr|"C'est la variété du français la plus fluctuante. Le sabir franco-africain est instable et hétérogène sous toutes ses formes. Il existe des énoncés où les mots sont français mais leur ordre reste celui de la langue africaine. En somme, autant les langues africaines sont envahies par les structures et les mots français, autant la langue française se métamorphose en Afrique, donnant naissance à plusieurs variétés."}}</ref> SomeKelkaj vernacularsurlokaj formsformoj ofde Frenchfranca inen AfricaAfriko canpovas beesti difficultmalfacile tokompreneblaj understandfare forde Frenchfrancaj speakersparolantoj fromel otheraliaj countrieslandoj,<ref> [ République centrafricaine]: {{lang|fr|Il existe une autre variété de français, beaucoup plus répandue et plus permissive : le français local. C'est un français très influencé par les langues centrafricaines, surtout par le sango. Cette variété est parlée par les classes non instruites, qui n'ont pu terminer leur scolarité. Ils utilisent ce qu'ils connaissent du français avec des emprunts massifs aux langues locales. Cette variété peut causer des problèmes de compréhension avec les francophones des autres pays, car les interférences linguistiques, d'ordre lexical et sémantique, sont très importantes.}} (''One example of a variety of African French that is difficult to understand for European French speakers'').</ref> butsed writtenverkitaj formsformoj ofde thela languagelingvo areestas verytre closelyrilataj relatedal totiuj thosede ofla thecetero restde ofla the Frenchfranc-speakingparolanta worldmondo.
[[File:Arret.jpg|thumb|upright|La [[Haltŝildo|"arrêt" ŝildoj]] (franca por "halto") estas uzataj en [[Kanado]] dum la anglalingva vorto ''stop,'' kiu estas ankaŭ valida franclingva vorto, estas uzata en Francio kaj en aliaj franc-parolantaj landoj kaj regionoj.]]
La franca estas la dua plej ofta lingvo en [[Kanado]], post la [[Angla lingvo|angla]], kaj ambaŭ estas oficialaj lingvoj je federacia nivelo. It is the first language of 9.5 million people or 29% and the second language for 2.07 million or 6% of the entire population of Canada.<ref name="Qu'est-ce que la Francophonie"/> French is the sole official language in the province of [[Quebec]], being the mother tongue for some 7 million people, or almost 80% (2006 Census) of the province. About 95% of the people of Quebec speak French as either their first or second language, and for some as their third language. Quebec is also home to the city of [[Montreal]], which is the world's 4th-largest French-speaking city, by number of first language speakers.<ref>{{Cite web |url= |title=What are the largest French-speaking cities in the world? |website=Tourist Maker |language=en-US |access-date=2016-10-06}}</ref> [[New Brunswick]] and [[Manitoba]] are the only officially bilingual provinces, though full bilingualism is enacted only in New Brunswick, where about one third of the population is Francophone. French is also an official language of all of the territories ([[Northwest Territories]], [[Nunavut]], and [[Yukon]]). Out of the three, Yukon has the most French speakers, comprising just under 4% of the population.<ref>{{cite web|url= |title=Detailed Mother Tongue (186), Knowledge of Official Languages (5), Age Groups (17A) and Sex (3) (2006 Census) | |date=December 7, 2010 |accessdate=February 22, 2011}}</ref> Furthermore, while French is not an official language in [[Ontario]], the [[French Language Services Act]] ensures that provincial services are to be available in the language. The Act applies to areas of the province where there are significant Francophone communities, namely [[Eastern Ontario]] and [[Northern Ontario]]. Elsewhere, sizable French-speaking minorities are found in southern Manitoba, [[Nova Scotia]], [[Prince Edward Island]] and the [[Port au Port Peninsula]] in [[Newfoundland and Labrador]], where the unique [[Newfoundland French]] dialect was historically spoken. Smaller pockets of French speakers exist in all other provinces. The city of Ottawa, the Canadian capital, is also effectively bilingual, as it is on the other side of a river from Quebec, opposite the major city of Gatineau, and is required to offer governmental services in French as well as English.{{Citation needed|date=March 2015}}
[[File:French in the United States.png|thumb|left|French language spread in the United States. Counties marked in lighter pink are those where 6–12% of the population speaks French at home; medium pink, 12–18%; darker pink, over 18%. [[French-based creole languages]] are not included.]] According to the United States Census Bureau (2011), French is the fourth<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Language Use in the United States: 2011, American Community Survey Reports, Camille Ryan, Issued August 2013|publisher=|access-date=18 February 2018|archive-url=|archive-date=5 February 2016|url-status=dead|df=dmy-all}}</ref> most-spoken language in the United States after [[English language|English]], [[Spanish language|Spanish]], and [[Chinese language|Chinese]], when all forms of French are considered together and all dialects of Chinese are similarly combined. French remains the second most-spoken language in the states of [[Louisiana]], [[Maine]], [[Vermont]] and [[New Hampshire]]. Louisiana is home to many distinct dialects, collectively known as [[Louisiana French]]. According to the 2000 United States Census, there are over 194,000 people in Louisiana who speak French at home, the most of any state if [[Louisiana Creole French|Creole French]] is excluded.<ref name="">[ U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000 Summary File 3] – Language Spoken at Home: 2000.</ref> [[New England French]], essentially a variant of [[Canadian French]], is spoken in parts of [[New England]]. [[Missouri French]] was historically spoken in [[Missouri]] and [[Illinois]] (formerly known as [[Upper Louisiana]]), but is nearly extinct today.<ref>{{cite book |title=Status and Function of Languages and Language Varieties |last= Ammon|first= Ulrich|authorlink= |author2=International Sociological Association|year= 1989|publisher= Walter de Gruyter|location= |isbn= 978-0-89925-356-5|pages= 306–08|url=|accessdate=14 November 2011}}</ref> French also survived in isolated pockets along the [[Gulf Coast]] of what was previously French [[Lower Louisiana]], such as [[Mon Louis Island]], Alabama and [[DeLisle, Mississippi]] (the latter only being discovered by linguists in the 1990s) but these varieties are severely endangered or presumed extinct.
French is one of Haiti's two official languages. It is the principal language of writing, school instruction, and administrative use. It is spoken by all educated Haitians and is used in the business sector. It is also used for ceremonial events such as weddings, graduations and church masses. About 70–80% of the country's population have Haitian Creole as their first language; the rest speak French as a first language. The second official language is the recently standardized [[Haitian Creole]], which virtually the entire population of Haiti speaks. Haitian Creole is one of the [[French-based creole languages]], drawing the large majority of its vocabulary from French, with influences from West African languages, as well as several European languages. Haitian Creole is closely related to Louisiana Creole and the creole from the [[Lesser Antilles]].<ref>Ministère de l'Éducation nationale</ref>
French is the official language of both [[French Guiana]] on the South American continent,<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Guyana – World Travel Guide|publisher=}}</ref> and of [[Saint Pierre and Miquelon]],<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Saint Pierre and Miquelon |}}</ref> an archipelago off the coast of Newfoundland in North America.
[[File:France colonial Empire10.png|thumb|Areas of French Colonization]]
== Parencaj lingvoj kaj dialektoj ==
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