Franca lingvo: Malsamoj inter versioj

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La franca estas unu el la du oficialaj lingvoj de [[Haitio]]. Ĝi estas la ĉefa lingvo por skribado, lernejedukado kaj administracia uzado. Ĝi estas parolata de ĉiuj kleraj haitianoj kaj estas uzata en negocaj sektoroj. Ĝi estas uzata ankaŭ por ceremoniaj eventoj kiel nuptoj, gradigoj kaj diservoj. Ĉirkaŭ 70–80% de la landa loĝantaro havas la [[Haitia kreola lingvo|Haitian kreolon]] kiel unua lingvo; la cetero parolas la francan kiel unua lingvo. La dua oficiala lingvo estas la ĵus normigita [[Haitia kreola lingvo]], kiu praktike la tuta landa loĝantaro parolas. La Haitia kreola estas unu el la [[Franc-kreolaj lingvoj]], kaj ĝi prenas la majoritaton de sia vortotrezoro el la franca, kun influoj el okcidentafrikaj lingvoj, same kiel el kelkaj lingvoj de Eŭropo. La Haitia kreolo estas tre rilata al la Luiziana kreolo kaj al la kreolo el la [[Malgrandaj Antiloj]].<ref>Ministère de l'Éducation nationale</ref>
 
La franca estas thela officialoficiala languagelingvo kaj ofde bothla [[Franca Gviano]] onen the South American continentSudameriko,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.worldtravelguide.net/french-guiana/history-language-culture|title=Guyana – World Travel Guide|publisher=}}</ref> andkaj ofde [[Sankta-Piero kaj Mikelono]],<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.ciaworldfactbook.us/north-america/saint-pierre-and-miquelon.html|title=Saint Pierre and Miquelon |website=www.ciaworldfactbook.us}}</ref> annome archipelagofrancia offinsularo theĉe coastla ofmarbordo Newfoundlandde inNovtero Northen AmericaNordameriko.
[[File:France colonial Empire10.png|thumb|250px300px|Areoj de la franca koloniado.]]
 
===Azio===
==== Sudorienta Azio ====
La franca estis la oficiala lingvo the colony of [[French Indochina]], comprising modern-day [[Vietnam]], [[Laos]], and [[Cambodia]]. It continues to be an administrative language in Laos and Cambodia, although its influence has waned in recent years.<ref>{{Cite news |url=https://www.nytimes.com/1993/10/16/style/IHT-french-declines-in-indochina-as-english-booms.html |title=French Declines in Indochina, as English Booms |last=Richardson |first=Michael |date=16 October 1993 |work=[[International Herald Tribune]] |access-date=2018-11-18 |language=en }}</ref> In colonial Vietnam, the elites primarily spoke French, while many servants who worked in French households spoke a French pidgin known as "[[Tây Bồi Pidgin French|Tây Bồi]]" (now extinct). After French rule ended, [[South Vietnam]] continued to use French in administration, education, and trade.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.worldwide.rs/vesti/58-role-english-vietnams-foreign-language-policy-brief-history|title=The role of English in Vietnam's foreign language policy: A brief history}}</ref> Since the [[Fall of Saigon]] and the opening of a unified Vietnam's economy, French has gradually been effectively displaced as the main foreign language of choice by English. French nevertheless maintains its colonial legacy by being spoken as a second language by the elderly and elite populations and is presently being revived in higher education and continues to be a diplomatic language in Vietnam. All three countries are official members of the OIF.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.francophonie.org/IMG/pdf/som_xvi_membres_oif_vf.pdf|title=84 ÉTATS ET GOUVERNEMENTS|last=|first=|date=|website=|access-date=|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170605183945/https://www.francophonie.org/IMG/pdf/som_xvi_membres_oif_vf.pdf|archive-date=5 June 2017|url-status=dead}}</ref>
 
====Okcidenta Azio====
=====Libano=====
[[File:Bienvenue a Rechmaya.jpg|thumb|right|upright=0.7|Town sign in [[Modern Standard Arabic|Standard Arabic]] and French at the entrance of [[Rechmaya]] in [[Lebanon]].]]
 
A former French [[French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon|mandate]], [[Lebanon]] designates [[Arabic]] as the sole official language, while a special law regulates cases when French can be publicly used. Article 11 of Lebanon's Constitution states that "Arabic is the official national language. A law determines the cases in which the French language is to be used".<ref name="article_11">{{cite web|author=Prof. Dr. Axel Tschentscher, LL.M. |url=http://www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/le00000_.html#A011_ |title=Article 11 of the Lebanese Constitution |publisher=Servat.unibe.ch |accessdate=17 January 2013}}</ref> The [[French language in Lebanon]] is a widespread second language among the [[Lebanese people]], and is taught in many schools along with Arabic and English. French is used on [[Lebanese pound]] banknotes, on road signs, on Lebanese [[Vehicle registration plates of Lebanon|license plates]], and on official buildings (alongside Arabic).
 
Today, French and English are secondary languages of [[Lebanon]], with about 40% of the population being [[Francophone]] and 40% Anglophone.{{sfn|OIF|2014|p=217}} The use of English is growing in the business and media environment. Out of about 900,000 students, about 500,000 are enrolled in Francophone schools, public or private, in which the teaching of mathematics and scientific subjects is provided in French.{{sfn|OIF|2014|p=218}} Actual usage of French varies depending on the region and social status. One-third of high school students educated in French go on to pursue higher education in English-speaking institutions. English is the language of business and communication, with French being an element of social distinction, chosen for its emotional value.{{sfn|OIF|2014|p=358}}
 
=====Israelo=====
A significant French-speaking community is also present in [[Israel]], primarily among the communities of [[French Jews in Israel]], [[Moroccan Jews in Israel]] and [[Lebanese Jews]]. Many secondary schools offer French as a foreign language.
 
=====United Arab Emirates and Qatar=====
The [[United Arab Emirates|UAE]] has the status in the [[Organisation internationale de la Francophonie]] as an observer state, and [[Qatar]] has the status in the organization as an associate state. However, in both countries, French is not spoken by almost any of the general population or migrant workers, but spoken by a small minority of those who invest in Francophone countries or have other financial or family ties. Their entrance as observer and associate states respectively into the organization was aided a good deal by their investments into the Organisation and France itself.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://english.al-akhbar.com/node/13464|title=How Qatar Became a Francophone Country|publisher=}}</ref> A country's status as an observer state in the [[Organisation internationale de la Francophonie]] gives the country the right to send representatives to organization meetings and make formal requests to the organization but they do not have voting rights within the OIF.<ref>{{Cite news |url=http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/toronto/la-francophonie-observer-status-1.3869354 |title=La Francophonie grants observer status to Ontario |last=Draaisma |first=Muriel |date=26 November 2016 |work=CBC News |access-date=2017-07-11}}</ref> A country's status as an associate state also does not give a country voting abilities but associate states can discuss and review organization matters.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.euractiv.com/section/eu-priorities-2020/news/greece-joins-international-francophone-body/|title=Greece joins international Francophone body|website=EURACTIV.com|language=en-GB|access-date=2017-07-11|date=2004-11-29}}</ref>
 
== Parencaj lingvoj kaj dialektoj ==
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