Granda Depresio: Malsamoj inter versioj

13 bitokojn aldonis ,  antaŭ 1 jaro
 
==Starto==
[[File:1929 wall street crash graph.svg|right|thumb|upright=1.8|TheLa [[Dowborsindico Jones Industrial Average|Dow Jones Industrial]], 1928–30.]]
EconomicPriekonomiaj historianshistoriistoj usuallykutime considerkonsideras thela catalysteksplodigilo ofde thela GreatGranda DepressionDepresio tola besubitan the sudden devastatingdetruegan [[BlackBorsa Tuesday|collapseKatastrofo ofde U.S.1929|usonan stockborsokatastrofon marketde prices1929]], startingstartinta onla October24an 24de oktobro, 1929. HoweverTamen,<ref name=Britannica>[http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/243118/Great-Depression Great Depression], Encyclopædia Britannica</ref> somekelkaj disputepridubas thistiun conclusionkonkludon andkaj seevidas thetiun stockkatastrofon crashnur askiel a symptomsimptomo, ratherpli thanol aliel causekaŭzo, ofde thela GreatGranda DepressionDepresio.<ref name="Frank_Bernanke"/><ref>{{cite news|title=Economics focus: The Great Depression|magazine=The Economist}}</ref>
 
Even afterpost thela katastrofo de Wall Street Crash ofde 1929 optimismoptimismo persistedpludaŭris fordum someiom timeda tempo. [[John D. Rockefeller]] saiddiris "TheseTiuj areestas daystagoj whenen manykiuj aremultaj discouragedmalkuraĝiĝis. InEn thela 93 yearsjaroj ofde mymia lifevivo, depressionsdepresioj havevenis comekaj and goneforiris. Prosperity hasProspero alwaysĉiam returnedrevenis andkaj willdenove againrevenos."<ref>{{cite web|url=http://us.history.wisc.edu/hist102/lectures/lecture18.html |title=Crashing Hopes: The Great Depression |accessdate=March13a 13de marto, 2008 |last=Schultz |first=Stanley K. |year=1999 |work=American History 102: Civil War to the Present |publisher=[[University of Wisconsin–Madison]] |url-status=dead |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20080323120342/http://us.history.wisc.edu/hist102/lectures/lecture18.html |archivedate=March23a 23de marto, 2008 |df= }}</ref> TheLa stockborso marketrevenis turnedsupren upwardkomence in earlyde 1930, returningreen toal earlyla 1929niveloj levelsde byla Aprilkomenco de 1929 ĉirkaŭ aprilo. ThisTio wasestis stillankoraŭ almostpreskaŭ 30% belowsub thela peakpinto ofde Septemberseptembro 1929.<ref>{{cite web|accessdate=May22a de 22majo, 2008 |url=http://www.gold-eagle.com/editorials_98/vronsky060698.html |title=1998/99 Prognosis Based Upon 1929 Market Autopsy |publisher=Gold Eagle |url-status=dead |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20080517075810/http://www.gold-eagle.com/editorials_98/vronsky060698.html |archivedate=May17a de 17majo, 2008 }}</ref>
Economic historians usually consider the catalyst of the Great Depression to be the sudden devastating [[Black Tuesday|collapse of U.S. stock market prices]], starting on October 24, 1929. However,<ref name=Britannica>[http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/243118/Great-Depression Great Depression], Encyclopædia Britannica</ref> some dispute this conclusion and see the stock crash as a symptom, rather than a cause, of the Great Depression.<ref name="Frank_Bernanke"/><ref>{{cite news|title=Economics focus: The Great Depression|magazine=The Economist}}</ref>
 
TogetherKune, government and business spent more in the first half of 1930 than in the corresponding period of the previous year. On the other hand, consumers, many of whom had suffered severe losses in the stock market the previous year, cut back their expenditures by 10%. In addition, beginning in the mid-1930s, a [[Dust Bowl|severe drought]] ravaged the agricultural heartland of the U.S.<ref name=drought>
Even after the Wall Street Crash of 1929 optimism persisted for some time. [[John D. Rockefeller]] said "These are days when many are discouraged. In the 93 years of my life, depressions have come and gone. Prosperity has always returned and will again."<ref>{{cite web|url=http://us.history.wisc.edu/hist102/lectures/lecture18.html |title=Crashing Hopes: The Great Depression |accessdate=March 13, 2008 |last=Schultz |first=Stanley K. |year=1999 |work=American History 102: Civil War to the Present |publisher=[[University of Wisconsin–Madison]] |url-status=dead |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20080323120342/http://us.history.wisc.edu/hist102/lectures/lecture18.html |archivedate=March 23, 2008 |df= }}</ref> The stock market turned upward in early 1930, returning to early 1929 levels by April. This was still almost 30% below the peak of September 1929.<ref>{{cite web|accessdate=May 22, 2008 |url=http://www.gold-eagle.com/editorials_98/vronsky060698.html |title=1998/99 Prognosis Based Upon 1929 Market Autopsy |publisher=Gold Eagle |url-status=dead |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20080517075810/http://www.gold-eagle.com/editorials_98/vronsky060698.html |archivedate=May 17, 2008 }}</ref>
 
Together, government and business spent more in the first half of 1930 than in the corresponding period of the previous year. On the other hand, consumers, many of whom had suffered severe losses in the stock market the previous year, cut back their expenditures by 10%. In addition, beginning in the mid-1930s, a [[Dust Bowl|severe drought]] ravaged the agricultural heartland of the U.S.<ref name=drought>
{{cite web
|url=http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/drought/drght_history.html
|title=Drought: A Paleo Perspective&nbsp;– 20th Century Drought
|publisher=[[ National Climatic Data Center]]
|accessdate=April 5, 2009
|last=
</ref>
 
By mid-1930, interest rates had dropped to low levels, but expected [[deflationdeflacio]] and the continuing reluctance of people to borrow meant that consumer spending and investment were depressed.<ref>{{Cite journal|first=James|last=Hamilton|title=Monetary Factors in the Great Depression|journal=Journal of Monetary Economics|volume=19|issue=2|pages=145–69|year=1987|doi= 10.1016/0304-3932(87)90045-6|ref=harv}}</ref> By May 1930, automobile sales had declined to below the levels of 1928. Prices, in general, began to decline, although wages held steady in 1930. Then a [[deflationary spiral]] started in 1931. Farmers faced a worse outlook; declining crop prices and a Great Plains drought crippled their economic outlook. At its peak, the Great Depression saw nearly 10% of all Great Plains farms change hands despite federal assistance.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://drought.unl.edu/DroughtBasics/DustBowl/TheGreatDepression.aspx|title=The Great Depression|website=drought.unl.edu|language=en-US|access-date=March 29, 2018}}</ref>
 
The decline in the [[Economy of the United States|U.S. economy]] was the factor that pulled down most other countries at first; then, internal weaknesses or strengths in each country made conditions worse or better. Frantic attempts to shore up the economies of individual states across the world through [[protectionism|protectionist]] policies, such as the 1930 U.S. [[Smoot–Hawley Tariff Act]] and retaliatory tariffs in other states, exacerbated the collapse in global trade.<ref>{{cite book|last1=Richard|first1=Clay Hanes (editor)|title=Historic Events for Students: The Great Depression|date=July 2002|publisher=Gale|isbn=978-0-7876-5701-7|edition=Volume I}}</ref> By 1933, the economic decline had pushed world trade to one third of its level just four years earlier.<ref>{{Cite book|title=Worlds together, worlds apart: a history of the world from the beginnings of humankind to the present|last=Tignor|first=Tignor, Robert L.|isbn=978-0-393-92207-3|edition=Fourth|location=New York|oclc=854609153|date = October 28, 2013}}</ref>
 
===EconomicEkonomiaj indicatorsindikiloj===
'''Change in economic indicators 1929–32'''<ref>Jerome Blum, Rondo Cameron, Thomas G. Barnes, ''The European world: a history'' (2nd ed 1970) 885 pp.</ref>
{| class="wikitable" style="width: 50%;text-align: right;"
|-
! scope="col" style="width:36%;"|
! scope="col" style="width:16%; text-align:center;"| United StatesUsono
! scope="col" style="width:16%; text-align:center;"| United Kingdom
! scope="col" style="width:16%; text-align:center;"| FranceFrancio
! scope="col" style="width:16%; text-align:center;"| GermanyGermanio
|-
| style="text-align: left;"| Industrial production
| +232%
|}
 
 
== Evoluo ==
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