Varahamihira: Malsamoj inter versioj

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'''Varahamihira''' aŭ '''Varahamihiro''', ankaŭ ''Varāhamihira'' (ĉirkaŭ 505 – ĉirkaŭ 587),<ref>{{cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=3CPwAgAAQBAJ&pg=PT61|title=The Development of Mathematics Throughout the Centuries: A Brief History in a Cultural Context|page=61|author=Brian Evans|publisher=John Wiley & Sons|date=24a de Februaro 2014|isbn=978-1118853979|quote=Varahamihira, a mathematician born around 505 CE and died 587 CE, who was also known for innovation with Pascal's triangle.}}</ref> '''Varāha''' aŭ '''Mihira''', estis Hindua astrologo, astronomo, kaj plursaĝulo kiu loĝis en [[Ujjain]] ([[Madja-Pradeŝo]], [[Barato]]). Li naskiĝis en la Avanti regiono, iom koresponda al nuntempa Malŭa parto de Madja-Pradeŝo, nome al Aditĝadasa. Laŭ unu el liaj propraj verkoj, li estis edukita en Kapitthaka.<ref name=MacTutor>{{MacTutor Biography|id=Varahamihira}}</ref> La hindia tradicio kredas lin unu el la "Naŭ Juveloj" (Navaratnoj de la kortego de la reganto Ĝaŝodharman Vikramaditja de Malŭa.<ref>{{cite book |title=History of Indian Literature |page=46 |publisher=Motilal Banarsidass Publications |date=2008}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |title=Kālidāsa: His Art and Culture |page=15 |author=Ram Gopal |publisher=Concept Publishing Company |date=1984}}</ref> Tamen, tiu postulo aperis por la unua fojo en multe pli posta teksto kaj la fakuloj konsideras tiun postulon dubinda ĉar nek Varahamihira nek Vikramaditja vivis en la sama jarcento nek Varahamihira vivis en la sama jarcento as some of the other names in the "nine jewels" list such as the much older [[Kalidasa]].<ref>{{cite book|author=Moriz Winternitz|author-link=Moriz Winternitz|title=History of Indian Literature|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=ql0BmInD1c4C|year=1985|publisher=Motilal Banarsidass |isbn=978-81-208-0056-4|pages=45–47}}</ref>
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Varāhamihira's most notable work was the ''Brihat Samhita'', an encyclopedic<ref name="Glucklich2008">{{cite book|author=Ariel Glucklich|title=The Strides of Vishnu: Hindu Culture in Historical Perspective|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=KtLScrjrWiAC |year=2008|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0-19-971825-2|pages=10, 123–126}}, Quote: "[...] the new temples and inconography, the science of architecture, the enormous encyclopedia the Brihat Samhita of Varahamihira [...]"</ref> work on architecture, temples, planetary motions, [[eclipse]]s, timekeeping, astrology, seasons, cloud formation, rainfall, agriculture, mathematics, [[gemology]], perfumes and many other topics.<ref name="Grattan-Guiness2016">{{cite book|author=Ivor Grattan-Guinness|title=Companion Encyclopedia of the History and Philosophy of the Mathematical Sciences: Volume Two|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=ZptYDwAAQBAJ |year=2016|publisher=Taylor & Francis|isbn=978-1-134-88832-0|pages=954–956}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|author1=Varahamihira|author2=M Ramakrishna Bhat|title=Brhat Samhita of Varahamihira|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=7VR8iriWmzUC&pg=PA960|year=1996|publisher=Motilal Banarsidass|isbn=978-81-208-1060-0|pages=549–561, 737–738, 874–876}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|author1=Varahamihira|author2=M Ramakrishna Bhat|title=Brhat Samhita of Varahamihira, Part 1|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=y_c7atbRFDQC|year=1996|publisher=Motilal Banarsidass |isbn=978-81-208-1060-0|pages=1–19}}</ref> According to Varahamihira, in some verses he was merely summarizing earlier existing literature on astronomy, ''Shilpa Sastra'' and temple architecture, yet his presentation of different theories and models of design are among the earliest texts that have survived.<ref name="Bühnemann2003">{{cite book|author=Michael Meister|editor=Gudrun Bühnemann|editor-link=Gudrun Bühnemann|title=Maònòdalas and Yantras in the Hindu Traditions|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=kQf2m8VaC_oC |year=2003|publisher=BRILL Academic |isbn=90-04-12902-2|pages=251–260}}</ref><ref name="Rao1985">{{cite book|author=T. A. Gopinatha Rao|title=Elements of Hindu Iconography|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=MJD-KresBwIC |year=1985|publisher=Motilal Banarsidass |isbn=978-81-208-0878-2|pages=25, 58–59}}</ref> The chapters of the ''Brihat Samhita'' and verses of Varahamihira were quoted by the Persian traveler and scholar [[Al Biruni]].<ref>{{cite book|author1=Varahamihira|author2=M Ramakrishna Bhat|title=Brhat Samhita of Varahamihira, Part 2|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=7VR8iriWmzUC&pg=PA960|year=1996|publisher=Motilal Banarsidass|isbn=978-81-208-1060-0|pages=960–961}}</ref>
 
[[Dosiero:6th-century Brihat Samhita of Varahamihira, 1279 CE Hindu text palm leaf manuscript, Pratima lakshana, Sanskrit, Nepalaksara script, folio 1 talapatra from a Buddhist monastery, 1v, 2r 2v leaves.jpg|eta|maldekstre|250px|Teksto el la Brihat Samhita de Varahamihira sur palmofolioj.]]
Varāhamihira is also credited with writing several authoritative texts on astronomy and astrology. He learned the Greek language, and praised the Greeks (''Yavanas'') in his text for being "well trained in the sciences". Some scholars consider him to be the strong candidate as the one who understood and introduced the zodiac signs, predictive calculations for auspicious ceremonies and astrological computations.<ref>{{cite book|author=Moriz Winternitz|author-link=Moriz Winternitz|title=History of Indian Literature|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=ql0BmInD1c4C|year=1985|publisher=Motilal Banarsidass |isbn=978-81-208-0056-4|pages=685–697}}</ref><ref>David Pingree (1963), [https://www.jstor.org/stable/228540 Astronomy and Astrology in India and Iran], Isis, Vol. 54, No. 2, University of Chicago Press, pp. 229-246</ref><ref name="Sarma2184">{{cite book | last=Sarma | first=K. V. | title=Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures | url=https://archive.org/details/encyclopaediahis00seli | url-access=limited | chapter=Varāhamihira | publisher=Springer Netherlands | location=Dordrecht | isbn=978-1-4020-4559-2 | doi=10.1007/978-1-4020-4425-0_9604 | pages=[https://archive.org/details/encyclopaediahis00seli/page/n2193 2184]–2185|year=2008|editor= Helaine Selin }}</ref>
Varāhamihira'sLa mostplej notableelstara workverko wasde theVarāhamihira estas la ''Brihat Samhita'', annome encyclopedicenciklopedia<ref name="Glucklich2008">{{cite book|author=Ariel Glucklich|title=The Strides of Vishnu: Hindu Culture in Historical Perspective|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=KtLScrjrWiAC |year=2008|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0-19-971825-2|pages=10, 123–126}}, QuoteCitaĵo: "[...] the new temples and inconography, the science of architecture, the enormous encyclopedia the Brihat Samhita of Varahamihira [...]"</ref> workverko onpri architecturearkitekturo, templestemploj, planetaryplanedaj motionsmovoj, [[eclipseeklipso]]sj, timekeepingtempoprecizigo, astrologyastrologio, seasonssezonoj, cloud formationnuboformado, rainfallpluvo, agricultureagrikulturo, mathematicsmatematiko, [[gemologygemologio]], perfumesparfumoj andkaj manymaultnj otheraliaj topicstemoj.<ref name="Grattan-Guiness2016">{{cite book|author=Ivor Grattan-Guinness|title=Companion Encyclopedia of the History and Philosophy of the Mathematical Sciences: Volume Two|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=ZptYDwAAQBAJ |year=2016|publisher=Taylor & Francis|isbn=978-1-134-88832-0|pages=954–956}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|author1=Varahamihira|author2=M Ramakrishna Bhat|title=Brhat Samhita of Varahamihira|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=7VR8iriWmzUC&pg=PA960|year=1996|publisher=Motilal Banarsidass|isbn=978-81-208-1060-0|pages=549–561, 737–738, 874–876}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|author1=Varahamihira|author2=M Ramakrishna Bhat|title=Brhat Samhita of Varahamihira, Part 1|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=y_c7atbRFDQC|year=1996|publisher=Motilal Banarsidass |isbn=978-81-208-1060-0|pages=1–19}}</ref> According toLaŭ Varahamihira, inen somekelkaj versesversoj heli wasestis merelysimple summarizingresumante earlierpli existingfruajn literaturesciarojn onde astronomyla ekzistinta literaturo pri astronomio, nome ''ShilpaŜilpa Sastra'' andkaj temple architecturetemplarkitekturo, yetkvankam hislia presentationprezentado ofde differentdiversaj theoriesteorioj andkaj modelsmodeloj ofde designdesegno areestas amonginter thela plej earliestfruaj textstekstoj thatkiuj haveestis survivedsurvivintaj.<ref name="Bühnemann2003">{{cite book|author=Michael Meister|editor=Gudrun Bühnemann|editor-link=Gudrun Bühnemann|title=Maònòdalas and Yantras in the Hindu Traditions|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=kQf2m8VaC_oC |year=2003|publisher=BRILL Academic |isbn=90-04-12902-2|pages=251–260}}</ref><ref name="Rao1985">{{cite book|author=T. A. Gopinatha Rao|title=Elements of Hindu Iconography|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=MJD-KresBwIC |year=1985|publisher=Motilal Banarsidass |isbn=978-81-208-0878-2|pages=25, 58–59}}</ref> TheLa chaptersĉapitroj ofde thela ''Brihat Samhita'' andkaj versesversoj ofde Varahamihira wereestis quotedcititaj byde thela Persianpersa travelerveturisto andkaj scholarfakulo [[Al Biruni]].<ref>{{cite book|author1=Varahamihira|author2=M Ramakrishna Bhat|title=Brhat Samhita of Varahamihira, Part 2|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=7VR8iriWmzUC&pg=PA960|year=1996|publisher=Motilal Banarsidass|isbn=978-81-208-1060-0|pages=960–961}}</ref>
 
Varāhamihira isestas alsoankaŭ creditedkonsiderata withkiel writingverkinto severalde authoritativekelkaj textsaŭtoritataj ontekstoj astronomypri andastronomio astrologykaj astrologio. HeLi learnedlernis thela Greek[[greka]]n languagelingvon, andkaj praisedlaŭdis thela Greeksgreklingvajn (''YavanasĜavanojn'') inen hissia textteksto forĉar beingili "wellestis trained"bone intrejnitaj theen sciencessciencoj". SomeKelkaj scholarsfakuloj considerkonsideras himlin tola beplej thetaŭga strongkandidato candidatepor asesti thela oneunua whokiu understoodkomprenis andkaj introducedenkondukis thela zodiaczodiakajn signssignojn, predictiveantaŭdirajn calculationskalkulojn forpor auspiciousaŭspiciaj ceremoniesceremonioj andkaj astrologicalastrologiaj computationskomputoj.<ref>{{cite book|author=Moriz Winternitz|author-link=Moriz Winternitz|title=History of Indian Literature|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=ql0BmInD1c4C|year=1985|publisher=Motilal Banarsidass |isbn=978-81-208-0056-4|pages=685–697}}</ref><ref>David Pingree (1963), [https://www.jstor.org/stable/228540 Astronomy and Astrology in India and Iran], Isis, Vol. 54, No. 2, University of Chicago Press, pp. 229-246</ref><ref name="Sarma2184">{{cite book | last=Sarma | first=K. V. | title=Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures | url=https://archive.org/details/encyclopaediahis00seli | url-access=limited | chapter=Varāhamihira | publisher=Springer Netherlands | location=Dordrecht | isbn=978-1-4020-4559-2 | doi=10.1007/978-1-4020-4425-0_9604 | pages=[https://archive.org/details/encyclopaediahis00seli/page/n2193 2184]–2185|year=2008|editor= Helaine Selin }}</ref>
 
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