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119 bitokojn aldonis ,  antaŭ 3 jaroj
Plej malnova skribita mencio pri '''kotono''' estas el [[Hindio]]. Kotono kultivatis en Hindio ekde pli ol 3000 jaroj kaj priparolitas en la [[Rigvedo]] skribita proksimume en jaro [[-1500]]. De antikveco, kaj dum jarcentoj, ĝis la angla [[Kolonio|koloniado]], Hindio estis ĉefa produktanto kaj eĉ eksportisto de kotonaĵoj. En antikvaj tempoj [[Romianoj]] importis per alta kosto la hindiajn [[muslino]]jn, kiujn ili nomis ''ventis textiles'' t. e. teksitaj ventoj. Modernhistorie kotonaj ŝtofoj ornamitaj per koloraj pentraĵoj presitaj el Hindio ekkonatis en [[Eŭropo]] nur en la 17-a jarcento kaj tiam nomitis "hindiaĵoj".
 
==History==
[[File:Mandeville cotton.jpg|thumb|Kotonujoj imagitaj kaj desegnitaj de [[John Mandeville]] en la 14a jarcento.]]
Kotono estis uzata en la [[Malnova Mondo]] almenaŭ antaŭ 7,000 jaroj (5a jarmilo a.K.). Pruvaro de kotonuzado troviĝis en la loko de [[Mehrgarh]], kie fruaj kotonfadenoj esits konservitaj en kupraj bidoj.<ref>{{Cite journal | doi = 10.1006/jasc.2001.0779| title = First Evidence of Cotton at Neolithic Mehrgarh, Pakistan: Analysis of Mineralized Fibres from a Copper Bead| journal = Journal of Archaeological Science| volume = 29| issue = 12| pages = 1393–1401| year = 2002| last1 = Moulherat | first1 = C. | last2 = Tengberg | first2 = M. | last3 = Haquet | first3 = J. R. M. F. | last4 = Mille | first4 = B. ̂T. }}</ref> Kotonkultivado iĝis pli disvastigata dum la [[Indusa Civilizo]], kiu kovris partojn de la teritorioj kie nun estas la modernaj orienta Pakistano kaj nortdokcidenta Barato.<ref>Stein, Burton (1998). ''A History of India''. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0-631-20546-2, p. 47</ref> La Indusa kotonindustrio estis bone disvolvigita kaj kelkaj metodoj tiam uzitaj en kotonspinado kaj fabrikado estis plue uzataj ĝis la industriigo de Barato.<ref>Wisseman & Williams, p. 127</ref> Inter 2000 kaj 1000 a.K. kotono disvastiĝis tra multo de Hindio.<ref>Fuller, D.Q. (2008). [http://www.ucl.ac.uk/archaeology/people/staff/fuller/usercontent_profile/TextilesbeyondIndus.pdf "The spread of textile production and textile crops in India beyond the Harappan zone: an aspect of the emergence of craft specialization and systematic trade"], pp. 1–26 in Osada, T., Uesugi, A. (eld.) ''Linguistics, Archaeology and the Human Past''. Indus Project Occasional Paper 3 series. Kyoto: Indus Project, Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. ISBN 978-4-902325-16-4</ref> Por ekzemplo, oni trovis ĉe la loko de Hallus en [[Karnatako]] datita el ĉirkaŭ 1000 a.K.<ref name=ce/> Kotonfabriko malkovrita en kavo ĉe [[Tehuacán|Tehuacán (Meksiko)]] estis datita el ĉirkaŭ 5800 a.K., kvanakm estas malfacile scii certe pro la fibra malkomponiĝo.<ref>{{cite book|last=Roche|first=Julian|title=The International Cotton Trade|year=1994|publisher=Woodhead Publishing Ltd.|location=Cambridge, England|isbn=1-85573-104-5|pages=4–5|url=https://books.google.com/?id=SeQCH4-Hc5kC&pg=PA4}}</ref> Aliaj fontoj datis la aldomigon de kotono en Meksiko al proksimume 5000 al 3000 a.K.<ref>{{cite journal|last=Huckell|first=Lisa W.|title=Plant Remains from the Pinaleño Cotton Cache, Arizona|journal=Kiva, the Journal of Southwest Anthropology and History|volume=59|issue=2|year=1993|jstor=30246122|pages=147–203}}</ref>
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In Iran ([[Persia]]), the history of cotton dates back to the [[Achaemenid]] era (5th century BC); however, there are few sources about the planting of cotton in pre-Islamic Iran. The planting of cotton was common in [[Merv]], [[Ray, Iran|Ray]] and [[Fārs Province|Pars]] of Iran. In [[Persian poetry|Persian poets]]' poems, especially [[Ferdowsi]]'s [[Shahname]], there are references to cotton ("panbe" in [[Persian language|Persian]]). [[Marco Polo]] (13th century) refers to the major products of Persia, including cotton. [[John Chardin]], a French traveler of the 17th century who visited the [[Safavid Persia]], spoke approvingly of the vast cotton farms of Persia.<ref>[http://www.encyclopaediaislamica.com/madkhal2.php?sid=2820 Encyclopaedia Islamica Foundation. بنیاد دائره المعارف اسلامی ], Retrieved on 28 February 2009.</ref>
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During the [[Han dynasty]], cotton was grown by non-Chinese peoples in the southern Chinese province of [[Yunnan]].<ref>{{cite book|url=https://books.google.com/?id=H5VDA90eDUoC&pg=PA410|title=Textiles of Southeast Asia: tradition, trade and transformation|author=Maxwell, Robyn J. |year=2003|publisher=Tuttle Publishing|edition=revised|isbn=0-7946-0104-9|page=410}}</ref>
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In [[Peru]], cultivation of the indigenous cotton species ''[[Gossypium barbadense]]'' was the backbone of the development of coastal cultures such as the [[Norte Chico civilization|Norte Chico]], [[Moche (culture)|Moche]], and [[Nazca culture|Nazca]]. Cotton was grown upriver, made into nets, and traded with fishing villages along the coast for large supplies of fish. The Spanish who came to Mexico and Peru in the early 16th century found the people growing cotton and wearing clothing made of it.
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During the late medieval period, cotton became known as an imported fiber in northern Europe, without any knowledge of how it was derived, other than that it was a plant. Because [[Herodotus]] had written in his ''[[Histories (Herodotus)|Histories]]'', Book III, 106, that in India trees grew in the wild producing wool, it was assumed that the plant was a tree, rather than a shrub. This aspect is retained in the name for cotton in several Germanic languages, such as German ''[[wikt:Baumwolle|Baumwolle]]'', which translates as "tree wool" (''Baum'' means "tree"; ''Wolle'' means "wool"). Noting its similarities to wool, people in the region could only imagine that cotton must be produced by plant-borne sheep. [[John Mandeville]], writing in 1350, stated as fact the now-preposterous belief: "There grew there [India] a wonderful tree which bore tiny lambs on the endes of its branches. These branches were so pliable that they bent down to allow the lambs to feed when they are hungrie {{sic}}." (See [[Vegetable Lamb of Tartary]].) By the end of the 16th century, cotton was cultivated throughout the warmer regions in Asia and the Americas.
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[[File:Vegetable lamb (Lee, 1887).jpg|thumb|left|The [[Vegetable Lamb of Tartary]]]]
India's cotton-processing sector gradually declined during British expansion in India and the establishment of [[British Raj|colonial rule]] during the late 18th and early 19th centuries. This was largely due to aggressive colonialist mercantile policies of the [[British East India Company]], which made cotton processing and manufacturing workshops in India uncompetitive. Indian markets were increasingly forced to supply only raw cotton and were forced, by British-imposed law, to purchase manufactured textiles from Britain.{{Citation needed|date=September 2013}}
 
===Industrial Revolution in Britain===
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The advent of the [[Industrial Revolution]] in Britain provided a great boost to cotton manufacture, as textiles emerged as Britain's leading export. In 1738, [[Lewis Paul]] and [[John Wyatt (inventor)|John Wyatt]], of [[Birmingham]], England, patented the roller spinning machine, as well as the flyer-and-bobbin system for drawing cotton to a more even thickness using two sets of rollers that traveled at different speeds. Later, the invention of the [[James Hargreaves]]' [[spinning jenny]] in 1764, [[Richard Arkwright]]'s [[spinning frame]] in 1769 and [[Samuel Crompton]]'s [[spinning mule]] in 1775 enabled British spinners to produce cotton yarn at much higher rates. From the late 18th century on, the British city of [[Manchester]] acquired the nickname ''"[[Cottonopolis]]"'' due to the cotton industry's omnipresence within the city, and Manchester's role as the heart of the global cotton trade.
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Production capacity in Britain and the United States was improved by the invention of the [[cotton gin]] by the American [[Eli Whitney]] in 1793. Before the development of cotton gins, the cotton fibers had to be pulled from the seeds tediously by hand. By the late 1700s a number of crude ginning machines had been developed. However, to produce a bale of cotton required over 600 hours of human labor,<ref name=r1>{{Cite journal | last1 = Hughs | first1 = S. E. | last2 =Valco | first2 = T. D. | first3=J. R. | last3 = Williford | year = 2008 | title = 100 Years of Cotton Production, Harvesting, and Ginning Systems | journal = Transactions of the ASABE | volume =51 | issue = 4 | pages = 1187–98 | publisher = | jstor = | doi =10.13031/2013.25234 | url = http://naldc.nal.usda.gov/catalog/23069 | format = | accessdate = }}</ref> making large-scale production uneconomical in the United States, even with the use of humans as slave labor. The gin that Whitney manufactured (the Holmes design) reduced the hours down to just a dozen or so per bale. Although Whitney patented his own design for a cotton gin, he manufactured a prior design from [[Henry Odgen Holmes]], for which Holmes filed a patent in 1796.<ref name=r1/> Improving technology and increasing control of world markets allowed British traders to develop a commercial chain in which raw cotton fibers were (at first) purchased from [[British Empire|colonial]] [[plantations]], processed into cotton cloth in the mills of [[Lancashire]], and then exported on British ships to captive colonial markets in [[British West Africa|West Africa]], [[British Raj|India]], and China (via Shanghai and Hong Kong).
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By the 1840s, India was no longer capable of supplying the vast quantities of cotton fibers needed by mechanized British factories, while shipping bulky, low-price cotton from India to Britain was time-consuming and expensive. This, coupled with the emergence of American cotton as a superior type (due to the longer, stronger fibers of the two domesticated native American species, ''[[Gossypium hirsutum]]'' and ''[[Gossypium barbadense]]''), encouraged British traders to purchase cotton from [[Plantations in the American South|plantations in the United States]] and [[plantations]] in the [[Caribbean]]. By the mid-19th century, "[[King Cotton]]" had become the backbone of the [[antebellum South|southern American]] economy. In the United States, cultivating and harvesting cotton became the leading occupation of [[Slavery in the United States|slaves]].
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During the [[American Civil War]], American cotton exports slumped due to a [[Union (American Civil War)|Union]] [[blockade]] on [[Confederate States of America|Southern]] [[port]]s, and also because of a strategic decision by the [[Confederate States of America|Confederate]] government to cut exports, hoping to force Britain to recognize the Confederacy or enter the war. This prompted the main purchasers of cotton, [[United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland|Britain]] and [[France]], to turn to [[Egypt]]ian cotton. British and French traders invested heavily in cotton plantations. The Egyptian government of [[Isma'il Pasha|Viceroy Isma'il]] took out substantial loans from European bankers and stock exchanges. After the American Civil War ended in 1865, British and French traders abandoned [[Egyptian cotton]] and returned to cheap American exports,{{citation needed|reason=I've seen this the other way round with the South suffering because British interests in Egypt persisted and they liked the product better|date=September 2012}} sending Egypt into a deficit spiral that led to the country declaring [[bankruptcy]] in 1876, a key factor behind Egypt's [[History of Egypt under the British|occupation by the British Empire in 1882]].
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[[File:Parchman prison convict labor 1911.jpeg|thumb|[[Incarceration|Prisoner]]s farming cotton under the [[Trusty system (prison)|trusty system]] in [[Parchman Farm]], [[Mississippi]], 1911]]
 
During this time, cotton cultivation in the [[British Empire]], especially India, greatly increased to replace the lost production of the American South. Through tariffs and other restrictions, the British government discouraged the production of cotton cloth in India; rather, the raw fiber was sent to England for processing. The Indian [[Gandhi, Mohandas K.|Mahatma Gandhi]] described the process:
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#English people buy Indian cotton in the field, picked by Indian labor at seven cents a day, through an optional monopoly.
#This cotton is shipped on British ships, a three-week journey across the Indian Ocean, down the Red Sea, across the Mediterranean, through Gibraltar, across the Bay of Biscay and the Atlantic Ocean to London. One hundred per cent profit on this freight is regarded as small.
#The finished product is sent back to India at European shipping rates, once again on British ships. The captains, officers, sailors of these ships, whose wages must be paid, are English. The only Indians who profit are a few lascars who do the dirty work on the boats for a few cents a day.
#The cloth is finally sold back to the kings and landlords of India who got the money to buy this expensive cloth out of the poor peasants of India who worked at seven cents a day.<ref>(Fisher 1932 pp 154–156)</ref>
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In the United States, Southern cotton provided capital for the continuing development of the North. The cotton produced by enslaved African Americans not only helped the South, but also enriched Northern merchants. Much of the Southern cotton was trans-shipped through northern [[ports]].
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Cotton remained a key crop in the Southern economy after [[Emancipation Proclamation|emancipation]] and the end of the Civil War in 1865. Across the South, [[sharecropping]] evolved, in which landless black and white farmers worked land owned by others in return for a share of the profits. Some farmers rented the land and bore the production costs themselves. Until mechanical cotton pickers were developed, cotton farmers needed additional labor to hand-pick cotton. Picking cotton was a source of income for families across the South. Rural and small town school systems had split vacations so children could work in the fields during "cotton-picking."
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It was not until the 1950s that reliable harvesting machinery was introduced (prior to this, cotton-harvesting machinery had been too clumsy to pick cotton without shredding the fibers). During the first half of the 20th century, employment in the cotton industry fell, as machines began to replace laborers and the South's rural labor force dwindled during the [[World War]]s.
 
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