Legomo: Malsamoj inter versioj

56 bitokojn aldonis ,  antaŭ 4 jaroj
sen resumo de redaktoj
 
==Produktado==
{{redaktata}}
===Kultivado===
{{Ĉefartikolo|Legomĝardeno|Utilĝardeno}}
Legomoj estis parto de la homa dieto el [[ekstermemora tempo]]. Kelkaj estas bazaj manĝaĵoj sed plej estas akcesoraj kromaĵoj, kiuj aldonas variecon al manĝaĵoj ties unikajn gustojn kaj samtempe, kaj aldonas ankaŭ nutraĵojn necesaj por la sano. Kelkaj legomoj estas [[Staŭdo|plurjaraj]] sed plej estas [[Unujara planto|unujaraj]] kaj [[Dujara planto|dujaraj]], kutime rikoltita en la sama jaro de semado aŭ plantado. Ajna sistemo estas uzata por kutivi legomojn, sekvante similan modelon; preparado de la grundo per moligado uax mildigado ĝin, forigo aŭ enterigo de fiherboj kaj aldono de organikaj aŭ kemiaj sterkoj; semado de semoj aŭ plantado de junaj plantoj; zorgado de la kultivita planto por malpliigi la plantokonkurencon, kontrolado de plagoj kaj havigado de sufiĉa akvo; rikoltado de la kultivaĵo kiam ĝi pretas; klasifikado, stokado kaj komercigado de la rikolto aŭ ties manĝado freŝe rekte el la grundo.<ref name=RHS/>
 
Diferencaj grundotipoj kongruas al diferencaj kultivaĵoj, sed ĝenerale en moderaj klimatoj, sablecaj grundoj sekiĝas rapide sed ankaŭ varmiĝas rapide printempe kaj estas taŭgaj por fruaj kultivoj, dum tre argilajargilecaj grundoj retenas moisturemalsekecon betterpli andbone arekaj morepli suitabletaŭge forpor latemalfruaj season cropsrikoltosezonoj. TheLa growingkreskosezono seasonpovas canesti beplilongigita lengthenedper byla theuzado usede ofretkovriloj, [[Horticultural fleece|fleece]]sonorilkovriloj, [[Cloche (agriculture)Mulĉo|cloches]],plastaj [[plastic mulchmulĉejoj]], [[polytunnel]]stuneletoj andkaj [[greenhouseforcejo]]sj.<ref name=RHS>{{cite book |title=The Royal Horticultural Society Encyclopedia of Gardening |last1=Brickell |first1=Christopher (ed) |year=1992 |type=Print |publisher=Dorling Kindersley |isbn=978-0-86318-979-1 |pages=303–308}}</ref> InEn hotterpli regionsvarmaj regionoj, thela productionproduktado ofde vegetableslegomoj isestas constrainedlimigita byde thela climateklimato, especiallyĉefe thepro patternla ofmodelo rainfallde la [[precipitaĵo]], whiledum inen temperatemoderklimataj zoneszonoj, itĝi estas islimigita constrainedde byla thetemperaturo temperaturekaj andde dayla lengthtagolongo.<ref name=Field/>
 
[[File:John Deere tractor between cabbage rows.jpg|thumb|right|Weeding cabbages in Colorado, US]]
 
[[File:John Deere tractor between cabbage rows.jpg|thumb|right|WeedingFoli-brasikoj cabbagesen in ColoradoKoloradio, USUsono.]]
{{redaktata}}
On a domestic scale, the spade, fork and hoe are the tools of choice while on commercial farms a range of mechanical equipment is available. Besides tractors, these include [[plough]]s, [[Harrow (tool)|harrows]], [[drill]]s, [[transplanter]]s, [[cultivator]]s, [[irrigation]] equipment and [[Forage harvester|harvesters]]. New techniques are changing the cultivation procedures involved in growing vegetables with computer monitoring systems, [[GPS]] locators and self-steer programmes for driverless machines giving economic benefits.<ref name=Field>{{cite book|author1=Field, Harry|author2=Solie, John|title=Introduction to Agricultural Engineering Technology: A Problem Solving Approach |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=WWWc8VmdqDAC |year=2007 |publisher=Springer Science & Business Media|isbn=978-0-387-36915-0}}</ref>
 
===HarvestingRikoltado===
{{redaktata}}
[[File:Harvesting - geograph.org.uk - 290336.jpg|thumb|left|Harvesting beetroot in the United Kingdom]]
When a vegetable is harvested, it is cut off from its source of water and nourishment. It continues to transpire and loses moisture as it does so, a process most noticeable in the wilting of green leafy crops. Harvesting root vegetables when they are fully mature improves their storage life, but alternatively, these root crops can be left in the ground and harvested over an extended period. The harvesting process should seek to minimise damage and bruising to the crop. Onions and garlic can be dried for a few days in the field and root crops such as potatoes benefit from a short maturation period in warm moist surroundings during which time wounds heal and the skin thickens up and hardens. Before marketing or storage, grading needs to be done to remove damaged goods and select produce according to its quality, size, ripeness and color.<ref name=Dixie>{{cite web |url=http://www.fao.org/docrep/008/a0185e/a0185e0a.htm |title=8. Post-harvest handling: Storage |author=Dixie, Grahame |year=2005 |work=Horticultural Marketing |publisher=FAO |accessdate=2015-03-21}}</ref>
 
===StorageStokado===
{{redaktata}}
All vegetables benefit from proper post harvest care. A large proportion of vegetables and perishable foods are lost after harvest during the storage period. These losses may be as high as thirty to fifty percent in developing countries where adequate cold storage facilities are not available. The main causes of loss include spoilage caused by moisture, moulds, micro-organisms and vermin.<ref name="PrakashGarg">{{cite book|author1=Garg & Prakash|author2=Garg, H.P. |title=Solar Energy: Fundamentals and Applications |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=-v_LfcIdĴIC&pg=PA191 |year=2000 |publisher=Tata McGraw-Hill Education |isbn=978-0-07-463631-2 |pages=191}}</ref>
 
 
Proper post-harvest storage aimed at extending and ensuring shelf life is best effected by efficient [[cold chain]] application.<ref name=pxk>Kohli, Pawanexh (2008) "Why Cold Chain for Vegetables" in [http://crosstree.info/Documents/Care%20of%20F%20n%20V.pdf ''Fruits and Vegetables Post-Harvest Care: The Basics'']. Crosstree Techno-visors</ref> Cold storage is particularly useful for vegetables such as cauliflower, eggplant, lettuce, radish, spinach, potatoes and tomatoes, the optimum temperature depending on the type of produce. There are temperature-controlling technologies that do not require the use of electricity such as evaporative cooling.<ref name=Sinha>{{cite book|author1=Sinha, Nirmal |author2=Hui, Y.H. |author3= Evranuz, E. Özgül |author4=Siddiq, Muhammad |author5=Ahmed, Jasim |title=Handbook of Vegetables and Vegetable Processing |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=Fz58umYZVK8C&pg=PT192 |year=2010|publisher=John Wiley & Sons |isbn=978-0-470-95844-5 |pages=192, 352}}</ref> Storage of fruit and vegetables in controlled atmospheres with high levels of carbon dioxide or high oxygen levels can inhibit microbial growth and extend storage life.<ref name=Thompson>{{cite book|author= Thompson, A. Keith|title=Controlled Atmosphere Storage of Fruits and Vegetables |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=9DUh8FcKQtsC&pg=PA18|year=2010 |publisher=CABI |isbn=978-1-84593-647-1 |page=18}}</ref>
{{redaktata}}
 
The irradiation of vegetables and other agricultural produce by [[ionizing radiation]] can be used to preserve it from both microbial infection and insect damage, as well as from physical deterioration. It can extend the storage life of food without noticeably changing its properties.<ref>{{cite web |url=https://www.iaea.org/sites/default/files/publications/magazines/bulletin/bull18-0/18005480406su.pdf |title=Use of nuclear energy to preserve man's food |author=de Zeeuw, Dick |publisher=International Atomic Energy Agency |accessdate=2015-03-22}}</ref>
 
===PreservationKonservado===
{{redaktata}}
The objective of preserving vegetables is to extend their availability for consumption or marketing purposes. The aim is to harvest the food at its maximum state of palatability and nutritional value, and preserve these qualities for an extended period. The main causes of deterioration in vegetables after they are gathered are the actions of naturally-occurring [[enzyme]]s and the spoilage caused by [[micro-organism]]s.<ref name=MAFF/> Canning and freezing are the most commonly used techniques, and vegetables preserved by these methods are generally similar in nutritional value to comparable fresh products with regards to [[carotenoid]]s, [[vitamin E]], [[Dietary element|minerals]] and [[dietary fiber]].<ref>{{cite journal |author=Rickman, Joy C. ; Bruhn, Christine M.; Barrett, Diane M. |year=2007 |title=Nutritional comparison of fresh, frozen, and canned fruits and vegetables II. Vitamin A and carotenoids, vitamin E, minerals and fiber |journal=Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture |volume=87 |issue=7 |pages=1185–1196 |doi=10.1002/jsfa.2824 }}</ref>
 
 
[[Frozen food|Freezing]] vegetables and maintaining their temperature at below {{convert|-10|°C}} will prevent their spoilage for a short period, whereas a temperature of {{convert|-18|°C}} is required for longer-term storage. The enzyme action will merely be inhibited, and [[Blanching (cooking)|blanching]] of suitably sized prepared vegetables before freezing mitigates this and prevents off-flavors developing. Not all micro-organisms will be killed at these temperatures and after thawing the vegetables should be used promptly because otherwise, any microbes present may proliferate.<ref>{{cite book|author1=Hui, Y. H. |author2=Ghazala, Sue|author3=Graham, Dee M. |author4=Murrell, K. D. |author5= Nip, Wai-Kit |title=Handbook of Vegetable Preservation and Processing|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=dVpQVJ46C5gC&pg=PA288 |year=2003 |publisher=CRC Press|isbn=978-0-203-91291-1|pages=286–290}}</ref>
{{redaktata}}
 
[[File:Sun-dried tomatoes (4694706270).jpg|thumb|left|Sun-drying tomatoes in Greece]]
Traditionally, [[Drying (food)|sun drying]] has been used for some products such as tomatoes, mushrooms and beans, spreading the produce on racks and turning the crop at intervals. This method suffers from several disadvantages including lack of control over drying rates, spoilage when drying is slow, contamination by dirt, wetting by rain and attack by rodents, birds and insects. These disadvantages can be alleviated by using [[solar power]]ed driers.<ref name="PrakashGarg"/> The dried produce must be prevented from reabsorbing moisture during storage.<ref name=MAFF/>
166 853

redaktoj